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Unit 1 : Introduction to Internetworking PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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·    What did you learn in TDC 361 and 362? ·    What is a (communications) network? An interconnected structure that allows attached devices to communicate with each other ·     Client/Server Model ·     Network Protocols ·     Network Classifications: LAN, MAN, WAN etc. ·     Internetwork

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Unit 1 : Introduction to Internetworking

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Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

·   What did you learn in TDC 361 and 362?

·   What is a (communications) network?

An interconnected structure that allows attached devices to communicate with each other

·    Client/Server Model

·    Network Protocols

·    Network Classifications: LAN, MAN, WAN etc.

·    Internetwork

·       Internetworking devices

·       The Internet as an example

·       Brief history

·       Structure of the Internet

·       RFC (Request for Comments)

·    Network Architectures: OSI and TCP/IP 

·    Internetworking devices revisited

·    Some Internet probing tools: ping and traceroute / tracert

·    Conversion between different number systems

·    IP Classful Addresses

Unit 1: Introduction to Internetworking


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Request Service

Provide Service

  • Network Protocols =

  • agreed-upon ways in which computers exchange information

  • Syntax: structure or format of the data

  • Semantics: meanings

  • Timing: when data should be sent and how fast it can be sent.


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

LAN

MAN

WAN


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Internetwork

Internetworking devices: bridges, routers, gateways etc.

The Internet


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

The Internet:

A collection of networks and routers that span many countries and uses the TCP/IP protocols to form a single, cooperative virtual network.

Intranet: connection of different LANs within an organization.

Main players in the Internet:

Started by U.S. research/military organizations:

(D)ARPA: (Defense) Advanced Research Projects Agency

 funds technology with military usefulness

DoD: U.S. Department of Defense

 early adaptor of Internet technology

NSF: National Science Foundations

 funds university research


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Today:

National backbone providers (NBPs)

interconnected through exchange points:

NAPs (Network Access Points) and MAEs (Metropolitan

Area Exchanges)

Regional ISPs connects to the NBPs


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Brief History of the Internet

1830: telegraph

1876: telephone (circuit-switching)

Development of Early Packet Switching Principles:

early 1960's concept of packet switching (Paul Baran)

1965: MIT's Lincoln Laboratory commissions Thomas Marill to study computer networking

1968: ARPAnet contract awarded to Bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN)

1969: ARPAnet has 4 nodes (UCLA, SRI, UCSB, U. Utah), connected by IMPs (Interface message processors); connected by 50 kbps lines

1971: 15 nodes and 23 hosts


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Internetworking, and New and Proprietary Networks

1973: TCP/IP design.

First satellite link from California to Hawaii

First international connections to the ARPANET:England and Norway

1979: ARPAnet had about 100 nodes

1980s: DARPA funded Berkeley Unix, with TCP/IP

1980-81: BITNET (IBM protocols) and CSNET (NSF-funded)

Early 1980's: split ARPnet (research), MILNET (Military)

Proliferation of Networks:

1984: Domain Name Services (Mapping Domain names into IP addresses)

1986: NSFNET created (56kbps backbone)

1989: Internet passes 100,000 nodes

First proposal for World Wide Web

NSFNET backbone upgraded to T1 (1.544 Mbps)


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Commercialization and the Web:

1990: Original ARPAnet disbanded

Fall 1991: CSNET discontinued

1991: Gopher released by University of Minnesota

1992: NSFNET backbone upgraded to T3 (44.736 Mbps)

March 1992: First MBONE (Multicast Backbone) video multicast

November 1992: First MBONE video multicast

Februray 1993: 1,776,000 hosts

May 1993: NSF solicited for bids and designated a series of NAPs (e.g. Chicago NAP is run by Ameritech)

April 30, 1995: NSFNet backbone disbanded

(See http://www.navigators.com/isp.html for excellent information and links about the architecture of the Internet)


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Internet growth from 1981 through 2000 plotted on a log scale

Internet growth from 1981 through 2000


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Some Internet-related organizations

ISOC: http://www.isoc.org

The Internet SOCiety (ISOC) is a professional membership society with more than 150 organizational and 6,000 individual members in over 100 countries. It provides leadership in addressing issues that confront the future of the Internet, and is the organization home for the groups responsible for Internet infrastructure standards, including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB).

IAB: http://www.iab.org

The IAB (Internet Architecture Board) is the Internet Society overseer of the technical evolution of the Internet. The IAB supervises the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), which oversees the evolution of TCP/IP, and the Internet Research Task Force (IRTF), which works on network technology.

IETF: http://www.ietf.org

The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is a large open international community of network designers, operators, vendors, and researchers concerned with the evolution of the Internet architecture and the smooth operation of the Internet. It is open to any interested individual.

Responsible for RFCs (Request for Comments, Internet Standards/drafts) which can be located at http://www.ietf.org/rfc.html

ICANN: http://www.icann.org

The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the non-profit corporation that was formed to assume responsibility for the IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root server system management function previously performed under U.S. Government contract by IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority) and other entities.


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

-

-

Maturity levels of an RFC


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Analogy:

Application = boss

Transport = secretary

Network Access = post office


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

ISO OSI Model

(ISO = International Standard Organization, OSI = Open Systems Interconnection)


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

OSI Layers


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

An exchange using the OSI model: Encapsulation and Decapsulation


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

TCP/IP and OSI Model

Connection-oriented

Connectionless

IP: Internet Protocol

TCP: Transmission Control Protocol

UDP: User Datagram Protocol

Connection-oriented: a connection must be set up first. Data go in sequence

Connectionless: no need to set up a connection. Data may arrive out of sequence.


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Figure 2-13 Relationship of layers and addresses in TCP/IP

Example: web browser implementing HTTP

Eg. TCP port 80 for web server

Interface. Eg. WINSOCK on PCs

Implemented in TCP and UDP software. HTTP uses TCP.

Eg. 140.192.33.37 (32- bit)

Implemented in IP software

Eg. Ethernet Medium Access Control (MAC) implemented in NIC card (Network Interface Card) and driver software

Eg. Ethernet address (48-bit)

Eg. Ethernet PHY layer. Implemented in NIC card


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Figure 2-14 Physical addresses: identify and interface card (Link address, MAC address)

Eg. Ethernet: a broadcast network.


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Figure 2-15 IP addresses (A logical address necessary for universal communication over the internet, and is independent of the underlying physical networks)

Note: We commonly uses names such as www.cs.depaul.edu (called Domain Names). To translate from names to IP addresses, needs to use DNS (Domain Name Service) implemented at the Application level.


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

  • Internetworking devices

  • Bridges: interconnect LANs at Layer 2

    • Connected LANs assigned a single network number (a single extended LAN)

  • Routers: interconnect at Layer 3

    • Each network assigned a different network number

  • Gateway: many kind of devices

    • Interconnect at Layer 4 and above

    • Note: Routers are used to (and sometimes still) be called gateways


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

A host is assigned a host number unique within a network

A router assigned an IP address per interface

Each network assigned an IP network number


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Dotted Decimal Notation

Class A: Large networks

Class B: Medium networks

Class C: Small networks

Hostid with all 0’s or all 1’s are special.

Classful IP Addresses


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Range of addresses in each class


Unit 1 introduction to internetworking

Multihomed devices have different addresses for each interface


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