The effects of smoking
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The Effects of Smoking. Describe the effects of smoking on the mammalian gas exchange system , with reference to the symptoms of chronic bronchitis emphysema (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD) lung cancer. C onstituents of cigarette smoke that cause damage to health.

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The Effects of Smoking

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The effects of smoking

The Effects of Smoking

Describe the effects of smoking on the mammalian gas exchange system, with reference to the symptoms of

  • chronic bronchitis

  • emphysema (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD)

  • lung cancer


C onstituents of cigarette smoke that cause damage to health

Constituents of cigarette smoke that cause damage to health

Cigarette smoke contains over 4000 different chemicals. The main problems are caused by :

  • Tar, a mixture of substances including carcinogens (chemicals that cause cancer)

  • Nicotine

  • Carbon Monoxide


The effects of smoking

Short Term Effects of Tar on Gas Exchange System (NB: tar does not pass through lung tissue into blood stream)


The effects of smoking

Short Term Effects of Tar on Gas Exchange System (NB: tar does not pass through lung tissue into blood stream)


Long term effects of tar on gas exchange system

Long Term Effects of Tar on Gas Exchange System


Long term effects of tar on gas exchange system1

Long Term Effects of Tar on Gas Exchange System


Diseases of gas exchange system associated with smoking

Diseases of Gas Exchange system associated with smoking

  • Lung Cancer

  • Bronchitis

  • Emphysema

  • COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)


Lung cancer

Lung Cancer

SEM of a lung cancer cell.

Cancer cells divide rapidly in a chaotic, uncontrolled manner.

They may clump to form tumours, which invade and destroy surrounding tissues.

Lung cancer is a common form of cancer, frequently associated with smoking tobacco. It often develops at the entrance to the bronchi

It causes a persistent cough, shortness of breath and chest pain. Blood may be coughed up in sputum.

Cancer may spread to other areas of the body.

Treatment includes surgical excision of the affected areas of the lung, with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.


Lung cancer1

Lung cancer

Outside lung

Inside lung

Black deposits of tar in tissues

Large cancerous tumour


Lung cancer2

Lung cancer


Signs and symptoms

Signs and Symptoms

  • Often no symptoms early on

  • Later symptoms maybe:

  • cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest pain, and coughing up blood


Bronchitis

Bronchitis


The effects of smoking

BronchitisInflammation of the airway lining, damaged cilia, increased mucous production. Persistent cough, mucus filled with microbes and white blood cells


Signs and symptoms of bronchitis

Signs and symptoms of Bronchitis

  • Cough

  • Production of mucus (sputum), either clear or white or yellowish-gray or green in color

  • Shortness of breath, made worse by mild exertion

  • Wheezing

  • Fatigue

  • Slight fever and chills

  • Chest discomfort

  • Frequent respiratory infections (such as colds or ‘flu) with a worsening productive cough


Emphysema

Emphysema


Emphysema1

Emphysema

Damaged alveoli

Normal alveoli


Emphysema2

Emphysema

SEM of human lung tissue affected by emphysema.

Emphysema is a disease in which the alveoli of the lung become enlarged and the walls separating them are damaged.

This damage occurs as a result of elastase enzyme breaking down the elastic fibres which allow the alveoli to expand and recoil. There is difficulty exhaling.

Surface area for gaseous exchange is reduced, restricting oxygen uptake. This may cause breathlessness, bluish skin, and heart or respiratory failure.

Occurrence of emphysema is strongly associated with smoking.

Treatment of emphysema is with drugs and the cessation of smoking.


Emphysema signs and symptoms

Emphysema signs and symptoms

  • Shortness of breath, shallow breathing

  • Wheezing, difficulty breathing out

  • Fatigue, extreme tiredness

  • Heart failure

  • Cyanosis / blue tinge to skin

  • High blood pressure to lungs

  • Enlarged right side of heart


Learning outcome

Learning Outcome

Describe the effects of

nicotine and carbon monoxide

in tobacco smoke on the

cardiovascular system

with reference to the course of events leading to

  • atherosclerosis

  • coronary heart disease

  • strokes.


The effects of smoking

  • Match the effect that CO and nicotine have on the body to the damage that they cause

  • Sort the cards into 6 pairs


The effects of smoking

Remember Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide enter the lungs and pass through the lung surface into the blood


Development of atheromas atherosclerosis

Development of Atheromas (Atherosclerosis)

  • Damage to the arterial endothelium by CO or hypertension

  • Cholesterol, fatty deposits and cellular waste are deposited under the damaged area in the wall, which is then repaired

  • Inflammation at the site stimulates monocytes to infiltrate the area

  • Monocytes differentiate into macrophages which ingest the cholesterol and turn into “foam cells”. This is what forms the “plaque”

  • These changes also stimulate smooth muscle cells to multiply and form a “cap”

  • The whole area increases in size and extends out into the lumen of the artery restricting blood flow.

  • The atheroma may finally break through the repaired endothelium again and release some of the lumps of fatty deposit into the blood stream. This can increase the likelihood of blockages in small arteries.


Development of atheroma in arterial walls atherosclerosis

Development of Atheroma in arterial walls (Atherosclerosis)


Reduction of arterial lumen by atheroma

Reduction of arterial lumen by atheroma

lumen

atheroma


The effects of smoking

  • Watch real player video on atherosclerosis


Essay

Essay

Explain how Nicotine and

Carbon Monoxide contribute to the occurrence of

Coronary Heart Disease and Strokes


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