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The Effects of Smoking. Describe the effects of smoking on the mammalian gas exchange system , with reference to the symptoms of chronic bronchitis emphysema (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD) lung cancer. C onstituents of cigarette smoke that cause damage to health.

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The effects of smoking
The Effects of Smoking

Describe the effects of smoking on the mammalian gas exchange system, with reference to the symptoms of

  • chronic bronchitis

  • emphysema (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or COPD)

  • lung cancer


C onstituents of cigarette smoke that cause damage to health
Constituents of cigarette smoke that cause damage to health

Cigarette smoke contains over 4000 different chemicals. The main problems are caused by :

  • Tar, a mixture of substances including carcinogens (chemicals that cause cancer)

  • Nicotine

  • Carbon Monoxide


Short Term Effects of Tar on Gas Exchange System (NB: tar does not pass through lung tissue into blood stream)


Short Term Effects of Tar on Gas Exchange System (NB: tar does not pass through lung tissue into blood stream)




Diseases of gas exchange system associated with smoking
Diseases of Gas Exchange system associated with smoking

  • Lung Cancer

  • Bronchitis

  • Emphysema

  • COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)


Lung cancer
Lung Cancer

SEM of a lung cancer cell.

Cancer cells divide rapidly in a chaotic, uncontrolled manner.

They may clump to form tumours, which invade and destroy surrounding tissues.

Lung cancer is a common form of cancer, frequently associated with smoking tobacco. It often develops at the entrance to the bronchi

It causes a persistent cough, shortness of breath and chest pain. Blood may be coughed up in sputum.

Cancer may spread to other areas of the body.

Treatment includes surgical excision of the affected areas of the lung, with radiotherapy and chemotherapy.


Lung cancer1
Lung cancer

Outside lung

Inside lung

Black deposits of tar in tissues

Large cancerous tumour



Signs and symptoms
Signs and Symptoms

  • Often no symptoms early on

  • Later symptoms maybe:

  • cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, chest pain, and coughing up blood



BronchitisInflammation of the airway lining, damaged cilia, increased mucous production. Persistent cough, mucus filled with microbes and white blood cells


Signs and symptoms of bronchitis
Signs and symptoms of Bronchitis

  • Cough

  • Production of mucus (sputum), either clear or white or yellowish-gray or green in color

  • Shortness of breath, made worse by mild exertion

  • Wheezing

  • Fatigue

  • Slight fever and chills

  • Chest discomfort

  • Frequent respiratory infections (such as colds or ‘flu) with a worsening productive cough



Emphysema1
Emphysema

Damaged alveoli

Normal alveoli


Emphysema2
Emphysema

SEM of human lung tissue affected by emphysema.

Emphysema is a disease in which the alveoli of the lung become enlarged and the walls separating them are damaged.

This damage occurs as a result of elastase enzyme breaking down the elastic fibres which allow the alveoli to expand and recoil. There is difficulty exhaling.

Surface area for gaseous exchange is reduced, restricting oxygen uptake. This may cause breathlessness, bluish skin, and heart or respiratory failure.

Occurrence of emphysema is strongly associated with smoking.

Treatment of emphysema is with drugs and the cessation of smoking.


Emphysema signs and symptoms
Emphysema signs and symptoms

  • Shortness of breath, shallow breathing

  • Wheezing, difficulty breathing out

  • Fatigue, extreme tiredness

  • Heart failure

  • Cyanosis / blue tinge to skin

  • High blood pressure to lungs

  • Enlarged right side of heart


Learning outcome
Learning Outcome

Describe the effects of

nicotine and carbon monoxide

in tobacco smoke on the

cardiovascular system

with reference to the course of events leading to

  • atherosclerosis

  • coronary heart disease

  • strokes.



Remember Nicotine and Carbon Monoxide enter the lungs and pass through the lung surface into the blood


Development of atheromas atherosclerosis
Development of pass through the lung surface into the bloodAtheromas (Atherosclerosis)

  • Damage to the arterial endothelium by CO or hypertension

  • Cholesterol, fatty deposits and cellular waste are deposited under the damaged area in the wall, which is then repaired

  • Inflammation at the site stimulates monocytes to infiltrate the area

  • Monocytes differentiate into macrophages which ingest the cholesterol and turn into “foam cells”. This is what forms the “plaque”

  • These changes also stimulate smooth muscle cells to multiply and form a “cap”

  • The whole area increases in size and extends out into the lumen of the artery restricting blood flow.

  • The atheroma may finally break through the repaired endothelium again and release some of the lumps of fatty deposit into the blood stream. This can increase the likelihood of blockages in small arteries.


Development of atheroma in arterial walls atherosclerosis
Development of pass through the lung surface into the bloodAtheroma in arterial walls (Atherosclerosis)


Reduction of arterial lumen by atheroma
Reduction of arterial lumen by pass through the lung surface into the bloodatheroma

lumen

atheroma



Essay
Essay pass through the lung surface into the blood

Explain how Nicotine and

Carbon Monoxide contribute to the occurrence of

Coronary Heart Disease and Strokes


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