Project Clio PD. Session 4: Teaching Chronological Thinking and Multiple Perspectives December 14, 2011. Putting today in context…. Thinking historically Text, subtext, and context Chronological thinking and causality Multiple perspectives.
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Project Clio PD
Session 4: Teaching Chronological Thinking and Multiple Perspectives
December 14, 2011
“Why Won’t You Just Tell Us the Answer?” uses the Railroad Strike of 1877 and the Bonus Army to teach chronological thinking, causality, and multiple perspectives.
Using an image from the period under study is an effective way to begin an investigation into chronology and causality.
What event is being depicted?
What is the artist’s message about the event?
John D. Rockefeller Jr.
John Lawson, Mother Jones, and Horace Hawkins (1914)
Unknown, John Lawson, Louis Tikas, Robert Harlan, 1914
Camp Beshoar–U.M.W.of A. Military Headquarters, Trinidad, Colorado. April 27th, 1914
Ludlow residents, 1914
Strikers tent colony, Ludlow, Colorado 1914
Caption reads “Members of the Colorado National Guard Entering the Strike District”
Referred to as a “Ludlow Death Special” used by Baldwin-Felts’ hired strikebreakers
Man examines pit beneath where a tent had stood on its platform (1914)
Ruins of Ludlow tent colony, 1914
Red Cross Members Searching Ruins of Ludlow Tent Colony
Line of funeral march for Ludlow victims, 1914
Louis Tikas funeral procession, Trinidad, Colorado, April 27th 1914
Lesh describes multiple perspectives as “an approach that examines a historical event, person, or idea through the lens of its contemporaries, participants, or proximate chroniclers.” (95)
1. To whom is this song addressed? Who is the “you” who “would kill our children,” and whose “soldiers” were waiting while the miners slept?
2. Guthrie mentions “wire fence corners” twice. What is he describing? Why is this important to understanding the song—or is it?
3. Do Guthrie’s lyrics accurately portray the event? Why or why not?
4. Guthrie wrote the lyrics 30 years after the event. Why do you think he was inspired to write them in 1944?
Once an original interpretation is developed, present a final piece of evidence.
Encourage students to reconsider chronology and how the new source might challenge their interpretation
Mimicking that historians do not always have immediate access to all sources.
Read Julia May Courtney and answer the following questions at your table:
1. Julia May Courtney predicted that, “every workingman in Colorado and in America will not forget” the cry, “Remember Ludlow.” Is this true? If not, why?
2. Do you think the statement, “[F]or the first time in the history of the labor war in America the people are with the strikers” was correct? Do you think the people did support them? Why, or why not? Why would they support these strikers and not others?
3. Do you think there is another side to the Ludlow Massacre, other than that presented by Courtney and Guthrie? How would that side justify its actions?
AT YOUR TABLES: COMPLETE A R.A.F.T. FOR THE LUDLOW MASSACRE. Use the large piece of paper. WE WILL SHARE OUT
From 1854-1856, Kansas was engulfed essentially by a civil war between pro- and antislavery forces. From September 1913 to April 1914, Colorado was similarly engulfed in violence that the New York Times referred to at the time as “the war in Colorado.” Standard history books refer to the violence in Kansas as “Bleeding Kansas.” Why do standard history books not apply a similar epithet to the violence in Colorado?
Memorial built by UMWA in 1918