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Evolution of the World Map. A – Antiquity B – Middle Ages C – Age of Discovery D – Modern Era. Antiquity. Herodotus (circa 450 BC) Inspired by Pythagoras (530 BC) and his geometry. Father of geography. Basic physical and human geography. Exploration and travel instead of geometry.

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Evolution of the world map

Evolution of the World Map

A – Antiquity

B – Middle Ages

C – Age of Discovery

D – Modern Era


Antiquity
Antiquity

  • Herodotus (circa 450 BC)

    • Inspired by Pythagoras (530 BC) and his geometry.

    • Father of geography.

    • Basic physical and human geography.

    • Exploration and travel instead of geometry.

    • Coined the terms Europe, Asia and Africa (Libya).

Accuracy

Trade route

Distance

Familiar

Accounts

Legends

“Terra incognita”



Antiquity1
Antiquity

  • Aristotle (circa 350 BC)

    • Considered physical elements such as the temperature and winds as factors of the human habitat.

    • Division of the world in 3 climatic zones.

    • Relationships between the environment (temperature) and human habitat.

    • One of the first physical geographer.

    • Judged impossible to cross to torrid equatorial zone and reach the antipodes.

Frigid

Temperate

Torrid


Antiquity2
Antiquity

  • Eratosthenes (circa 250 BC)

    • Formally assumed the earth was round.

    • Calculated the circumference of the earth.

    • 40,572 km versus the exact figure of 40,091 km.

    • Developed the concepts of parallel and meridian.

    • Consequently introduced the concept of geographical location.

    • Created modern cartography (cartographic plane).



Antiquity3
Antiquity

  • Ptolemy (circa 150 AD)

    • Refined the coordinate system.

    • Inventory of population and resources.

    • Describing the world.

    • 8,000 entries.

    • Relationships between the physical and human elements.

    • Created map projections.

    • His map would remain the most accurate until the age of discovery.



Middle ages
Middle Ages

  • Period of decline

    • Cartographic and regional approach was lost in Europe:

      • Representation of the world was “Christianized”.

      • Orthodoxy replaced objective observation and analysis.

    • “T and O” Maps (Orbis Terrae):

      • T is the Mediterranean (+ Nile and Black Sea).

      • O is the surrounding ocean.

    • Greek and Roman knowledge kept by the Byzantine Empire and by the Arabs.

T-O map from the Etymologiae of Isidorus, 12th Century



Age of discovery
Age of Discovery

  • Exploration and innovation

    • The 15th and 16th centuries were characterized by numerous maritime explorations.

    • A commercial expansion of European nations.

    • Several technical innovations:

      • The compass, more precise maps.

      • Larger ships (they passed from 200 to 600 tons during the sixteenth century), better ship structures and the rudder.

      • Insure a safe, fast and therefore profitable maritime navigation.

    • Creation of the first accurate world maps.


The americas 16 th century
The Americas, 16th Century



Modern era
Modern Era

  • A complete world map

    • Early 20th century.

    • Complete and accurate view of the world.

    • Coordinate systems.

    • National inventories of resources.

    • Widely available atlases.

  • Information technologies

    • Use of remote sensing (aerial photographs and remote sensing).

    • Digital maps.

    • Mass diffusion through online accessibility.




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