detailed design review p13265 motorcycle safety light backpack system
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Detailed Design Review P13265 Motorcycle Safety Light Backpack System. February 15 th , 2013 RIT MSDI. MSD Team. Primary Customers: Sport bike/standard riders who ride with backpacks Surrogate Customers: Aaron League Andrew Nauss Faculty Guides: Leo Farnand Vince Burolla

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msd team
MSD Team
  • Primary Customers:
    • Sport bike/standard riders who ride with backpacks
  • Surrogate Customers:
    • Aaron League
    • Andrew Nauss
  • Faculty Guides:
    • Leo Farnand
    • Vince Burolla
  • Industrial Design Consultant:
    • Killian Castner
  • Team Members:
    • Mike Baer, Project Manager
    • Tyler Davis, Lead Engineer
    • Ben Shelkey, ME Project Engineer
    • TJ Binotto, EE Project Engineer
    • Eric Dixon, EE Project Engineer
today s agenda
Today’s Agenda
  • Overview 5 minutes, 1 slide
    • Project Description Recap
    • Borrowed Motorcycle Specs
  • System Model Design 50 minutes, x slides
    • Family Tree, System Overview
    • System Components
    • CAD Models/Drawings
    • Component Assembly Plans
    • Schematics, Pseudo-Code
    • Bill of Materials
  • Feasibility Analysis, Prototyping, and Experimentation 30 mins, x slides
    • Testing for critical components
  • Test Plans 5 mins, x slides
  • Next Steps 15 mins, x slides
    • Updated Risk Assessment
    • MSDII Plan
  • Conclusion, Comments 15 mins, x slides
project description review
Project Description Review
  • This project is intended to be prototype stage for marketable product for motorcyclists:
  • Two major needs identified by motorcyclists:
  • 1. Safety
    • Hurt Report
        • Motorcyclist safety study performed by Henry Hurt, published in 1981
        • Of the accidents analyzed, ~75% of motorcycle accidents involved collision with another vehicle
        • “Failure of motorists to detect and recognize motorcycles in traffic is the predominating cause of motorcycle accidents”
    • Motorcycle Conspicuity Study
      • Riders wearing any reflective or fluorescent clothing had a 37% lower risk than other riders
      • Conclusion: “Increasing the use of reflective or fluorescent clothing, white or light coloured helmets, and daytime headlights…could considerably reduce motorcycle crash related injury and death.”
  • 2. Electronics charging
    • Most motorcyclists have no means of charging electronics
project description review1
Project Description Review
  • Conducted market survey regarding safety equipment and small electronics charging
    • Currently at 77 participants (for results visit EDGE website)
  • Summary of target market (motorcyclists who):
      • Often or always wear backpacks
        • Carry bulky items, such as books or laptops
      • Ride in 4 seasons, and wet conditions (rain, fog, snow)
      • Currently do not have method for charging electronics (such as cell phone)
        • Micro USB charging connection required
      • Believe visibility is important
        • Utilize reflective surfaces, bright colors, and lighting systems
      • Would consider upgrading their existing lights to LED lights
      • Place importance of aesthetics and durability of products
borrowed motorcycle
Borrowed Motorcycle
  • Type: 2006 Kawasaki Vulcan EN500
  • Owner: Andrew Nauss, 5th year ME
    • Gave permission to test on bike and make small modifications, if necessary
  • Not ideal type of bike for target market, but it shares same engine and electronics with the Ninja 500, a popular entry-level sport bike

Vulcan EN500

physical system overview backpack
Physical System OverviewBackpack

Brake/Running Lights

User Control Panel On Chest Strap

Ambient Light Sensor

Turn Signals

System Power Switch

Electronics Box Inside Bottom Backpack Compartment

Motorcycle Power Connector

physical system overview motorcycle
Physical System OverviewMotorcycle


Light-Signals Out

Transmitter Box

Power Out

Bike Light Signals In

Bike Power In

(Inside Box)

Transmitter Board w/ Xbee Transmitter

family tree 2 3
Family Tree (2/3)

From Backpack Assembly


family tree 3 3
Family Tree (3/3)

From Backpack


backpack shell
Backpack Shell

Shell Front

Shell Back

Shell Drawing

backpack assembly
Backpack Assembly
  • Shell
  • Cut and assemble main compartment zipper to length.
  • Apply Liquid Nails to inside edges of top shell
  • Attach and clamp fully zipped zipper to shell following the instructions of the Liquid Nails
  • Wait for glue to fully cure
  • Safety pin unglued zipper side to soft backpack back
  • Unzip zipper
  • Sew second half of zipper to soft back
  • Cut and assemble bottom compartment zipper to length
  • Apply Liquid Nails to one connection corner of both shell halves
  • Attach only the starting section the zipper following 3-4
  • Attach the rest of the zipper using non-permanent method.
  • Using a paintmarker or sharpie make marks on shell/zipper in 1in increments (these will be used to make sure zipper and shell are lined up properly when adhering).
  • Unzip sections
  • Remove zipper from both sections and clean off non-permanent adhesive
  • Attach zippers halves to each shell section separately following 2-4.
  • Unzip
  • Apply Liquid Nails to back edge of bottom shell section.
  • Attach and clamp bottom fabric backpack flap to back edge of shell following 3-4.
  • Attach quick access panel following 9-18.
  • LEDs
  • Drill Wire holes in all light strip slots.
  • Place LED light strips in their appropriate slots with proper adhesive.
  • For each light signal slot line lens ridge with silicone sealer.
  • Press each lens into their appropriate slot.
  • Wipe off any excess sealer and allow to dry
  • Electronics Pouch, Easy Access Pouch and Other
  • Place adhesive on edges of neoprene pouch.
  • Press pouch into the top surface of the bottom backpack compartment.
  • Allow to dry.
  • For easy access pouch follow 25-27; except the easy access pouch will be attach on the inside perimeter of the easy access panel.
  • Drill hole on the bottom right side of shell in appropriate location for power switch.
  • Apply sealer to edge of hole.
  • Pop power switch into hole and hold.
  • Wipe off any excess sealer and allow to dry.
  • Drill hole in the bottom of the shell for the power cord.
  • Drill hole in specified location on top access panel for light sensor.
  • Place light sensor in through the shell.
  • Apply sealant to back of the sensor to hold in place.
  • Allow to dry.
  • Disconnect chest strap clip from strap.
  • Slide user control panel onto strap.
  • Reconnect chest strap clip.
  • Wire all components.
  • Battery Health Panel:
  • Press fit PCB into top panel
  • Apply silicone sealer to back
  • Fit back panel against the top
  • Clamp and allow to dry for appropriate time
lights selection
  • Lights:
    • Compared thru-hole vs. flexible strips
      • Strips proved to be better for application
    • Colored LEDs documented to be more efficient than

using white LED with colored lens cover

    • Strips available in .5m length w/ 30 LEDs/strip
      • Can be cut into increments of 3 LEDs
        • Each 3 LED segment has necessary resistors to operate @ 12V
    • 3 sets of High Intensity 30 LED SMD Strips
      • 2 amber and 1 red
      • $15/ strip, $45 total
    • *Note: 11 sections of red strips are needed, but only 10/ strip
      • Will instead use one amber section, but will purchase 2nd red strip in MSDII if budget allows

Flexible LED Strip

lights flash functionality
LightsFlash Functionality

1st stage brake lights

2nd stage brake lights

Upper Large Arrows

Upper Small Arrows

Dual Brightness Running/Brake Lights

Lower Small Arrows

lights requirements


1 RED strip

2 AMBER strips

*Note: Decision made to eliminate front shoulder strap lights due to installation complexity and marginal benefit to rider (headlight is much brighter)

light covers selection
Light CoversSelection
  • Lens Covers:
    • Provide protection from elements
    • Clear thermoform acrylic sheets
      • Can bend to required shape
    • Clear:
      • ~92% Light Transmission @ 90 degrees incident to surface
    • Red and Amber:
      • ~9-15% Transmission @ 90 degrees
    • Currently in discussion with manufacturer
      • Will be sending free samples of both clear and red
      • Can hold off on purchasing until samples are received
    • Sheets will be cut to size and molded to sit flush with External Shell
  • Diffusion Material:
    • Diffusion material is not necessary and will not be used
    • Could potentially be added after completion of build

Clear acrylic

electronics housing assembly
Electronics Housing Assembly


  • Main Housing
  • Base (Aluminum)
  • Long side (on battery side, straight, 2 holes tapped on top)
  • Long side (dividing board and battery, has slot for wires)
  • Long side (battery side, has 5 holes (2x DB9, I USB 2x 2-in-1) and 2 holes tapped on top)
  • 2x Short side (identical, each has slot in the top)
  • Top piece
  • 4 screws
  • Glue


Use mill to dimension pieces to specified dimensions

Create required holes (tapped and for plug)

Glue long sides and short sides to base as detailed in assembly drawing

Add board, with bushings underneath

Install board with screws

Install top with screws

transmitter box
Transmitter Box


  • Original plans were to fabricate a custom-sized waterproof box for the transmitter
  • Availability and competitive prices of prefabricated boxes outweigh the benefits of a custom box
  • Selected box: HAMMOND Plastic Instrument Enclosures Black Project Box

Pictured: Bottom (facing up and down)

Complete box

Price: $4.49 (free shipping)

chest strap user control panel
Chest Strap User Control Panel

Status LED On/Off

Hazard Button

Light Pattern Select

Brake/Turn Signal Function Toggle

Status LEDs

Control Panel (w/ Cover)

Control Panel (Cover Off)

View of Attachment Loop

chest strap user control panel1
Chest Strap User Control Panel

Control Panel Top

Control Panel Bottom

cord retraction
Cord Retraction
  • In order to prevent the charging cable from being caught in the rear wheel if disconnected, a retraction system is necessary.
  • Original plans resembled a retractable dog leash, but because of the size and stiffness of the wire this idea was abandoned.
  • Rather than have the wire wind up, it will be an extendable coiled wire with the male and female ends being the connectors.
quick connect selection criteria
Quick-Connect Selection Criteria

Must attach and detach both quickly and easily

Must not shake loose

Must have reasonable detaching pull force in order to prevent damage to other systems (if rider forgets to unplug)

Aesthetically pleasing

Low production cost

cost analysis of quick connect options
Cost analysis of Quick-Connect options


Choice: Guitar Amp Connector


-Quicker to attach because of no directional preference

- “Clicks” in, less likely to come off accidentally

system block diagram

System Block Diagram




System Block Diagram

Electronics Housing/PCB

Motorcycle System

Motorcycle Battery


USB Charger

USB 2.0

System NiMH Battery


2.5mm Connector



Quick Connect

Transmitter Housing/PCB

Battery Monitor / Fuses

Voltage Regulation






2.1mm Connector


Power Switch

12V->3.3V Regulation


µCon (MSP430)





Light Drivers

Xbee Transmitter




Calibrate Button









Chest Strap Signals

1-4. Battery Status LEDs

  • Function Toggle
  • Function Toggle Sel
  • Hazard
  • 3.3V

Transmitter Signals

  • Headlight
  • Left Turn Signal
  • Right Turn Signal
  • Brake Light

12 LED Groups

Chest Strap PCB

User Interface Buttons

Battery Status LEDs

battery selection technology
Battery SelectionTechnology
  • Re-evaluated initial selection of Li-Po battery due to safety concerns
    • For scope of project, not possible to design box that is guaranteed to prevent any damage to battery in event of crash
    • Li-Po and Li-Ion battery can catch on fire if cells are damaged, even with no current draw
  • Decided upon Ni-MH:
    • They do not catch fire when damaged
    • Still meet performance requirements
    • Downside, heavier and larger volume
battery selection criteria
Battery SelectionCriteria
  • Battery selection criteria:
    • Meets minimum 12V voltage requirement (from lights)
    • Meets minimum required power draw
    • Meets maximum current draw (~3.5A worst-case)
    • Can be connected to off-the-shelf AC smart charger
      • Built in overcharge protection and thermal monitoring
battery selection comparison
Battery SelectionComparison
  • Three options
    • Selection limited due to required capacity
    • Selection further limited due to 12V requirement
  • Total price includes pack, charger
    • Cost between 3 choices was negligible
battery selection comparison1
Battery SelectionComparison
  • After comparing in PUGH diagram, Powerizer Flat pack/charger was chosen due to flat size and larger capacity for the same price
    • 4500 mAh, 12V, 4.2A max
    • Dimensions: 7.2 x 2.9 x .8 inches
    • Cost: $66, shipped
    • 5 day lead time before shipping
battery health monitor selection criteria
Battery Health Monitor SelectionCriteria
  • Battery Health Monitor Criteria:
    • Monitor voltage levels on NiMH Battery (14.5V-10.5V)
    • Be able to load shed USB charging system at a specific voltage.
    • Shut off system as safe shutdown (10.5V)
    • Send signals to Battery Status LEDs on chest strap
battery health monitor charging circuit function
Battery Health Monitor/Charging Circuit Function
  • Monitor Internal Battery Voltage
    • Send Low Bat signal to µCon at desired level
  • Isolate Internal Battery from system under the following conditions.
    • Low Battery Level
    • Connected to: Wall Charger or Bike Power
battery health monitor design design
Battery Health Monitor DesignDesign
  • Compare the voltage on the supply to a reference voltage.
    • Divide voltage supply level by 3.
    • Use a 6.2V 1% precision Zener diode to set reference.
    • Use voltage divider resistor string to set reference voltage levels.
battery monitor charging schematic
Battery Monitor/Charging Schematic


1% Precision

Zener Diode

Low-Battery Flag to µCon

power supply selection criteria design
Power SupplySelection Criteria / Design
  • Power Supply selection criteria:
    • Low power dissipation.
    • Low heat generation.
    • Regulate battery voltage to 5V for USB Charging System
    • Regulate battery voltage to 3.3V for µCon, Wireless, User Interface switches and Battery Status LEDs.
  • Power Supply Design
    • Vin >10V, 5V Switching Regulator, designed using Manu. Datasheet.
    • 3.3V Linear Regulator using input from 5V Switching Reg.
power supply schematic
Power Supply Schematic

5V Switching Regulator

3.3V Linear Regulator

usb charger selection criteria design
USB Charger Selection Criteria /Design
  • USB Charger Selection criteria:
    • Meet requirement of Standard USB Dedicated Charging Port
    • Maximize charging rate, while minimizing power/time.
  • USB Charger Design
    • IC Solution for a Dedicated Charging port.
    • 1A Charging Current
usb charger schematic
USB Charger Schematic

Dedicated Charging Port


USB Enable from µCon

light sensor selection criteria
Light Sensor SelectionCriteria
  • Light Sensor selection criteria:
    • QSD124 NPN Silicon Phototransistor
    • Narrow Reception Angle of 24DEG
    • Power Dissipation is Max 100 mW
led driver selection
LED Driver Selection
  • Drive a # of 3-LED segments requiring 200mA/segment.
  • Switch on/off using a µController input signal
    • 0V->3.3V
wireless transmission selection criteria
Wireless Transmission SelectionCriteria
  • Xbee 802.15.4 Low-Power module w/ PCB Antenna
    • Little configuration required for RF Communication
    • Low-Power Consumption
    • Low Input Voltage (3.3V) and Current (50mA) requirements
    • Small Physical Size
    • Large amount of open-source documentation
transmitter tx board schematic
Transmitter (Tx) Board Schematic


Voltage Regulation


Bike Signals

microcontroller selection criteria
Microcontroller SelectionCriteria
  • Microcontroller selection criteria:
    • Minimize controller power consumption.
    • Maximize # of I/Os.
    • Have PWM functionality.
microcontroller and rx schematic
Microcontroller and Rx Schematic

Xbee Receiver

µController w/ JTAG Prog.

Outputs to Light Drivers

chest strap system selection criteria
Chest Strap System SelectionCriteria
  • Chest Strap criteria:
    • House User Interface Switches
    • House Battery Status LEDs
    • Minimize Power Consumption
    • Can be connected to off-the-shelf AC smart charger
      • Built in overcharge protection and thermal monitoring
pseudo code 2 2
Pseudo-Code (2/2)

Continued from above

high cost items
High Cost Items

Battery- $66 w/shipping

Lights- $53 w/shipping

Microcontroller Dev. Kit - $29

XbeeUnits - $38

PCBs- (3x$75)

Shell Mold Fabrication- $135 w/shipping

light system luminosity test
Light SystemLuminosity Test
  • Three tests completed:
    • LED florescent tube strip (benchmark)
    • 4.4W 30 LED high power strip
    • 1.1 W 30 LED water resistant strip
  • Tested high-brightness and weatherproof light strips in daylight
  • Observed brightness ~100 ft away from light
  • All strips bright enough during day

Illuminated Light Strip

*Note: Strip was much brighter than picture shows

Results: Lights bright enough for requirements

light system power consumption calculations
Light SystemPower Consumption Calculations

Results: With very conservative estimate, in worst-case scenario, system should operate from battery for >2 hrs

bike mock up transmitter box
Bike Mock-UpTransmitter Box
  • A mock-up for transmitter placement was completed on donor bike
  • Test-fit laptop charger into inner cover
    • Dimensions are 1.75 x 4 x 1 inch (H x L x W)
  • Charger fit within cover with extra room
  • Transmitter box will be much smaller than charger => fits
  • Inner cover is protected from elements from outer cover (not pictured)

Results: Good location determined for Tx box





Inner Cover

bike mock up bike battery power wire routing
Bike Mock-UpBike Battery Power Wire Routing
  • Proper routing of the wire from the 12V bike battery is very important for several reasons:
    • Mitigation of any risk that wire can catch on rider
    • If wire detaches, should not create safety risk (i.e. catch in chain/wheel)
    • With wire attached, rider should be able to move freely
    • Rider should be able to easily attach wire
  • Considered several routing options:
    • 1. In front of seat
    • 2. Rear of seat
    • 3. Side of seat

# 1

# 3

# 2

bike mock up bike battery power wire routing option 1
Bike Mock-UpBike Battery Power Wire Routing: Option 1
  • Option 1 quickly eliminated due to routing over rider’s legs
    • Safety and rider discomfort issues
bike mock up bike battery power wire routing option 2
Bike Mock-UpBike Battery Power Wire Routing: Option 2
  • Option 2 is possible, but not ideal
    • Space under seat for wire to route without any stress concerns
    • However, wire would have to route over seat, which could blow around in wind and create greater risk of detachment
bike mock up bike battery power wire routing option 3
Bike Mock-UpBike Battery Power Wire Routing: Option 3

Results: Option 3 is best method

  • Option 3 presents best routing method
    • No interference with rider
    • No stresses/ methods for damage to wire
    • Shortest wire length of 3 options

Space between frame and chrome

Mock-up Wire Routed with Seat on

xbee code
Xbee Code

Configures the TX unit


-Grabs unit attention



ATID 2286

-Sets address


-Sets my address to 1

ATD0 3

ATD1 3

ATD2 3

ATD3 3

-Sets DIO 0 through 3 to digital input


-Sets destination address high


-Sets destination address of receiver


-Sets sample rate to 20ms


-Disables internal pull-ups


-Writes to memory

  • Configures the RX unit
  • +++
  • -Grabs unit attention
  • ATRE
  • -Resets
  • ATID 2286
  • -Sets address
  • ATMY 2
  • -Sets my address to 2
  • ATD0 5
  • ATD1 5
  • ATD2 5
  • ATD3 5
  • -Sets DIO 0 through 3 to digital output
  • ATIA 1
  • -Sets I/O input address to TX address
  • ATWR
  • -Writes to memory
msd ii plan 4 week plan
MSD II Plan- 4 week plan
  • End Week 1
    • Complete Final Assembly and Test Plans- All
  • End Week 2
    • Completed Assembly of Transmitter Housing- Ben
    • Completed Assembly of Transmitter Board- TJ
    • Completed Debugging of Transmitter Housing- TJ
  • End Week 3
    • Completed Assembly of In-bag Electronics Assembly- Ben
    • Completed In-bag Assembly Board- Eric/TJ
    • Completed Backpack External Shell- Tyler/Mike
    • Completed DC Quick Connect Assembly- Ben
  • End Week 4
    • Completed Backpack Shell Integration w/Soft Shell- Tyler
    • Completed Light/Light Cover Integration w/Shell- Mike/Tyler
    • Completed Debugging of In-Bag Assembly- Eric/ TJ