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The Roman Republic. Before the Romans…. Various civilizations across the peninsula Latins in 800 BCE Legend: Romulus & Remus and the founding of Rome The most influential on Romans (later) were the Etruscans. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wA1D9wd29jI. Etruscan Writing.

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Before the romans
Before the Romans…

  • Various civilizations across the peninsula

  • Latins in 800 BCE

    • Legend: Romulus & Remus and the founding of Rome

  • The most influential on Romans (later) were the Etruscans

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wA1D9wd29jI



Romans establish a republic
Romans Establish a Republic

  • Res Republica~ Latin for “that which belongs to the people”

    • One of ancient Rome’s greatest contributions to our modern world

    • Lasts for nearly 500 years beginning in 509 BCE


Basic terms
Basic Terms

  • Patrician: landowning upper class (aristocrats)

  • Plebian: farmers, merchants, artisans, traders

    • Most of population

  • Assembly: group of persons gathered for a specific, common reason


The senate
The Senate

  • In the early Republic, Senate controlled by and made up of patricians only

  • Duties & Privileges

    • served for life

    • elected officials

    • passed laws

    • determined foreign policy

    • acted as a court


The forum then and now
The Forum - Then and Now


Consuls
Consuls

  • Each year, two were nominated by the Senate from the Patrician class

  • Checks put on their power

    • could serve only one term

    • had to approve one another’s decisions

  • In war, the Senate chose a dictator

    • granted absolute power for 6 months


Plebians fight for their rights
Plebians Fight for their Rights

  • Tribunes – elected officials of the Plebians

    • protected interests of the Plebians

    • could veto laws seen as harmful to them

  • Called for Rome’s laws to be written and published

    • Twelve Tablets

  • Over time, chosen as Consuls and allowed into the Senate


Roman republic grows
Roman Republic Grows

  • By 270 BCE, controlled most of Italian Peninsula

    • Use citizen-soldiers in groups called Legions

  • Treated defeated enemies with justice

  • Italy begins to unite under Roman rule


Policy of imperialism
Policy of Imperialism

  • Control over foreign lands and people

  • Punic Wars ~ 264-146 BCE

    • Fought (and defeated) Carthage 3 times

  • Moved into Eastern Mediterranean

    • Called the Mediterranean Mare Nostrum (“Our Sea”)


Impacts of imperialism at home
Impacts of Imperialism at Home

  • Rome becomes very rich

  • widespread use of slave labor on Latifundias

    • huge estates with large farm tracts

    • hurt small farmers

    • jobless/landless move into cities

  • greed and self interest replaced traditional Roman values


Roman republic declines
Roman Republic Declines

  • series of civil wars

    • At issue – Who should hold power?

  • established Legions had more loyalty to commanders

    • rival commanders marched their armies into Rome to advance their own ambitions



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