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The Roman Republic

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The Roman Republic. Before the Romans…. Various civilizations across the peninsula Latins in 800 BCE Legend: Romulus & Remus and the founding of Rome The most influential on Romans (later) were the Etruscans. Etruscan Writing.

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before the romans
Before the Romans…
  • Various civilizations across the peninsula
  • Latins in 800 BCE
    • Legend: Romulus & Remus and the founding of Rome
  • The most influential on Romans (later) were the Etruscans

romans establish a republic
Romans Establish a Republic
  • Res Republica~ Latin for “that which belongs to the people”
    • One of ancient Rome’s greatest contributions to our modern world
    • Lasts for nearly 500 years beginning in 509 BCE
basic terms
Basic Terms
  • Patrician: landowning upper class (aristocrats)
  • Plebian: farmers, merchants, artisans, traders
    • Most of population
  • Assembly: group of persons gathered for a specific, common reason
the senate
The Senate
  • In the early Republic, Senate controlled by and made up of patricians only
  • Duties & Privileges
    • served for life
    • elected officials
    • passed laws
    • determined foreign policy
    • acted as a court
  • Each year, two were nominated by the Senate from the Patrician class
  • Checks put on their power
    • could serve only one term
    • had to approve one another’s decisions
  • In war, the Senate chose a dictator
    • granted absolute power for 6 months
plebians fight for their rights
Plebians Fight for their Rights
  • Tribunes – elected officials of the Plebians
    • protected interests of the Plebians
    • could veto laws seen as harmful to them
  • Called for Rome’s laws to be written and published
    • Twelve Tablets
  • Over time, chosen as Consuls and allowed into the Senate
roman republic grows
Roman Republic Grows
  • By 270 BCE, controlled most of Italian Peninsula
    • Use citizen-soldiers in groups called Legions
  • Treated defeated enemies with justice
  • Italy begins to unite under Roman rule
policy of imperialism
Policy of Imperialism
  • Control over foreign lands and people
  • Punic Wars ~ 264-146 BCE
    • Fought (and defeated) Carthage 3 times
  • Moved into Eastern Mediterranean
    • Called the Mediterranean Mare Nostrum (“Our Sea”)
impacts of imperialism at home
Impacts of Imperialism at Home
  • Rome becomes very rich
  • widespread use of slave labor on Latifundias
    • huge estates with large farm tracts
    • hurt small farmers
    • jobless/landless move into cities
  • greed and self interest replaced traditional Roman values
roman republic declines
Roman Republic Declines
  • series of civil wars
    • At issue – Who should hold power?
  • established Legions had more loyalty to commanders
    • rival commanders marched their armies into Rome to advance their own ambitions