The people s crusade and the rhineland jews
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The People’s Crusade and the Rhineland Jews. HIST 3004 9/18/13. People’s Crusade. What is the People’s or Peasants’ Crusade?. Preaching the Crusade. Estimated 127,000 recruits ~10% were knights (less than 1/4 th of all knights) ~40% support staff Who are the other h alf?

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The people s crusade and the rhineland jews

The People’s Crusade and the Rhineland Jews

HIST 3004

9/18/13


People s crusade

People’s Crusade

  • What is the People’s

    or Peasants’ Crusade?


Preaching the crusade

Preaching the Crusade

  • Estimated 127,000 recruits

  • ~10% were knights (less than 1/4th of all knights)

  • ~40% support staff

  • Who are the other

    half?

  • Why did so many

    sign up?


Raising funds

Raising Funds

  • Knights would require 4-5 years income

  • Drought

  • Alienation of patrimony

  • The Church and

    readily available cash

  • Influx of property into

    the market depresses

    values

  • Contested property rights

  • Why would you sell off

    your patrimony?


Beyond urban ii s call

Beyond Urban II’s Call

  • Peter the Hermit (ca. 1050-1115)

  • Attempted pilgrimage but turned back by Seljuqs

  • Possible originator of the Crusades?

  • Organize paupers into a spiritually pure crusade

  • Possible connections with the Second Coming of Christ


Crusading fervor and the rhineland jews

Crusading Fervor and the Rhineland Jews

  • Count Emich of Flonheim

  • Visions of Jesus

  • Fulfill “end of times”

    prophecies to become the

    last world emperor

  • May 3, 1096 – Attacks on

    Jewish community in Speyer

  • May 18 – Attacks in Worms

    (800 killed)

  • May 25 – Battle against Ruthard

    Bishop of Mainz (1,100 killed)

  • May 29 – Receive protection

    money from Cologne


Pogroms of 1096

Pogroms of 1096

  • Albert of Aachen

  • Why did these attacks

    happen?

  • How were they justified by

    the crusaders?

  • How could they defy the

    Church while on crusade?

  • Solomon bar Samson

  • How did the Jewish

    communities of the Rhineland

    respond?

Illustration from mid-13th century

French Bible showing the

execution of Jews.


Anti jewish crusading

Anti-Jewish Crusading

  • Folkmar and Gottschalk

  • Priests leading smaller

    bands of crusaders

  • Attacking and extorting

    Jewish communities

  • Massacred by the King

    Coloman of Hungary for

    pillaging


The end of the peasants crusade

The End of the “Peasants’ Crusade”

  • Walter Sans Avoir (lord of

    Boissy-sans-Avoir)

  • Meets Italian pilgrims at

    Constantinople

  • Aug. 1, 1096 – Peter the

    Hermit arrives at

    Constantinople

  • Aug. 6 – Ferried across the

    Bosporus by Alexius I Comnenus


The end of the peasants crusade1

The End of the “Peasants’ Crusade”

  • Kibotos – rallying point

  • Rainaldo – leader of Italian and

    German contingent

  • French raid Nicaea

  • Rainaldo moves base beyond

    Nicaea

  • Sept. 29 – Turks

    surround Italians and

    Germans

  • Surrender and apostasy


The end of the peasants crusade2

The End of the “Peasants’ Crusade”

  • Oct. 21 – French crusaders seek vengeance

  • Ambushed by Turks

  • Peter the Hermit fine, was in Constantinople the whole time

  • What went wrong for the first wave of the First Crusade?


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