Thai history iii
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Thai History III. Rattanakosin Period: Chakri Dynasty. 9 Kings of Chakri Dynasty. 9 Kings of Chakri Dynasty. Rattanakosin /Bangkok (since 1782).

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Thai history iii

Thai History III

Rattanakosin Period: Chakri Dynasty


9 kings of chakri dynasty

9 Kings of Chakri Dynasty


9 kings of chakri dynasty1

9 Kings of Chakri Dynasty


Rattanakosin bangkok since 1782

Rattanakosin/Bangkok (since 1782)

  • When King Buddha YodFaChulaloke, or King Rama I succeeded to the throne of Chakri dynasty, he and his younger brother started to establish Rattanakosin city or Bangkok in 1692. When the city was nearly completely found, most people both in Thonburi and Ayutthaya integrated to settle down in the new capital city.


Rama i 1782 1809

Rama I (1782 - 1809)

  • Rama I (Buddha YodFahChulaloke) became a king together with the inauguration of the Chakridynastry on April 6, 1782. He moved the capital across the Chao Phaya River from Thonburi to "Bangkok”.


Restoration

Restoration

  • He restored most of the social and political system of the Ayutthaya kingdom, promulgating new law codes, reinstating court ceremonies and imposing discipline on the Buddhist monkhood.


Occupation

Occupation

  • In 1792 the Siamese occupiedLuangPrabangand brought most of Laos under indirect Siamese rule. Cambodia was also effectively ruled by Siam. By the time of his death in 1809, Rama I had created a Siamese over lordship dominating an area considerably larger than modern Thailand.


Rama ii 1809 1824

Rama II (1809 - 1824)

  • In 1809, Rama II or King Buddha Loet Lah, son of Rama I took the throne until 1824. He devoted himself to preserve the Thai literature that had remained fromAyutthayaperiod and produced a new version of Ramakien or Thai Ramayana, the classical literature.


Thai history iii

  • The Chakri dynasty now controlled all branches of Siamese government — since Rama I had 42 children, and Rama II had 73, there was no shortage of royal princes to staff the bureaucracy, the army, the senior monkhood and the provincial governments. (Most children were of concubines and thus not eligible to inherit the throne.)


British occupation

British Occupation

  • In 1785 the British occupied Penang, and in 1819 they foundedSingapore. Soon the British displaced the Dutch and Portuguese as the main western economic and political influence in Siam. The British objected to the Siamese economic system, in which trading monopolies were held by royal princes and businesses were subject to arbitrary taxation.


British demand

British Demand

  • In 1821 the government ofBritish Indiasent a mission to demand that Siam lift restrictions on free trade — the first sign of an issue which was to dominate 19th century Siamese politics.


Thai history iii

  • Rama II died in 1824 and was succeeded by his son Prince Jessadabondindra, who reigned as King Nangklao, now known asRama III. Rama II's younger son,Mongkut, was 'suggested' to become a monk, removing him from politics.


Rama iii 1824 1851

Rama III (1824 - 1851)

  • In 1824-1851, Rama III or King Nang Klao was successful in re-establishing relation and making trades with China which was necessary to meet the increasing domestic agricultural production.


Thai history iii

  • In 1825 the British sent another mission to Bangkok led byEast India CompanyemissaryHenry Burney. They had by now annexed southern Burma and were thus Siam's neighbours to the west, and they were also extending their control overMalaya.


Burney treaty

Burney Treaty

  • The King was reluctant to give in to British demands, but his advisors warned him that Siam would meet the same fate as Burma unless the British were accommodated. In 1826, therefore, Siam concluded its first commercial treaty with a western power, theTreaty of Amity and Commerce (Siam–UK) (also called theBurney Treaty).


Amendment of monopolies

Amendment of Monopolies

  • Under the treaty, Siam agreed to establish a uniform taxation system, to reduce taxes on foreign trade and to abolish some of the royal monopolies. As a result, Siam's trade increased rapidly, many more foreigners settled in Bangkok, and western cultural influences began to spread. The kingdom became wealthier and its army better armed.


British trading with siam

British Trading with Siam


Bowring treaty

Bowring Treaty

  • In late Rama III, Siam used monopoly policy again that against the Burney Treaty. This resulted trading disputesbetween Siam and Britain. In 1855 (Rama IV), the British made Bowring treaty that forced Siamese to be under British trading at last.


Lao rebellion

Lao Rebellion

  • A Lao rebellion led byAnouvongwas defeated in 1827, following which Siam destroyedVientiane, carried out massive population transfers from Laos to the more securely held area ofIsan, and divided the Lao Mueang into smaller units to prevent another uprising. In 1842–1845 Siam waged a successful war with Vietnam, which tightened Siamese rule over Cambodia.


Thai history iii

  • By the 1840s it was obvious that Siamese independence was in danger from the colonial powers: this was shown dramatically by the BritishFirst Opium Warwith China in 1839–1842.


First opium war

First Opium War


Foreign traders demands

Foreign Traders’ Demands

  • In 1850 the British and Americans sent missions to Bangkok demanding the end of all restrictions on trade, the establishment of a western-style government and immunity for their citizens from Siamese law (extraterritoriality).


Chinese influx

Chinese Influx

  • Economically, from its foundation, Rattanakosin witnessed the growing role of Chinese merchants, who were chased out before by king Taksin. Beside merchants, Chinese who were farmers, endlessly came to seek fortune in the new kingdom.


Chinese assimilation

Chinese Assimilation

  • The Rattanakosin's rulers welcomed the Chinese, due to their source of economic revival. Some ethnic Chinese merchants became the court officials, holding crucial positions.


Relationship with china

Relationship with China

  • Chinese culture such as literature was accepted and promoted. Many Chinese works were translated by ethnic Chinese court dignitaries. Siam's relationship with the Chinese Empire was strong.


Thai history iii

  • It has been a royal tradition to build a temple of king since King Rama I.

  • Although temple of Rama III is WatRatcha O-Ros, his most visible legacy in Bangkok is theWat Photemple complex, which he enlarged and endowed with new temples.

  • Both temples contain many Chinese arts and sculptures.


Wat pho chetupon

Wat Pho (Chetupon)


Chinese guardians

Chinese Guardians


Wat ratcha oros

Wat Ratcha-Oros


Chinese arts@thai temple

Chinese [email protected] temple


Rama iv 1851 1868

Rama IV (1851 - 1868)

  • Rama IV or King Mongkut (Phra Chom Klao), who reigned from 1851 to 1868 lived as a Buddhist monk for 27 years. He used his long sojourn as a monk to acquire a western education from French and American missionaries, and British merchants. He could speak many languages such as Latin, English, and five other languages.


Thai history iii

  • The missionaries hoped to convert him to Christianity, but in fact he was a strict Buddhist and a Siamese nationalist. He intended using this western knowledge to strengthen and modernise Siam when he came to the throne.


Thai history iii

  • Having been a monk for 27 years, he lacked a base among the powerful royal princes, and did not have a modern state apparatus to carry out his wishes.

  • His first attempts at reform, to establish a modern system of administration and to improve the status of debt-slaves and women, were frustrated.


Thai history iii

  • Under his reign, he created new laws to improve the women's and children's right. There was a common saying that “Woman is buffalo, Man is human”.

  • A Thai movie titled “Am Dang Muen and Nai Rid” portrayed women’s lives in this period.


Thai history iii

Anna Leonowens


Anna and the king

“Anna and the King”

  • Anna Leonowens, a British governess, presents a group of liberated Christian women in the 1800's that worked to end slavery. She was a part of Siamese history and has been fictionalized asThe King and I.The film mentions that Anna was one of the forces that brought freedom from slavery and freedom of religion. 


Thai history iii

  • Rama IV thus came to welcome western intrusion in Siam. Indeed the king himself was actively pro-British. This came in 1855 in the form of a mission led by the Governor ofHong Kong,Sir John Bowring, who arrived in Bangkok with demands for immediate changes, backed by the threat of force.


Thai history iii

  • The King readily agreed to his demand for a new treaty, called theBowring Treaty, which restricted import duties to 3%, abolished royal trade monopolies, and granted extraterritoriality to British subjects.

  • Other western powers soon demanded and got similar concessions.


Thai history iii

  • The king soon came to consider that the real threat to Siam came from the French, not the British. The British were interested in commercial advantage, the French in building a colonial empire. They occupiedSaigonin 1859, and 1867 established a protectorateover southern Vietnam and eastern Cambodia.


Thai history iii

  • Rama IV hoped that the British would defend Siam if he gave them the economic concessions they demanded. In the next reign this would prove to be mistaken, but it is true that the British saw Siam as a useful buffer state between British Burma andFrench Indochina.


Siam as buffer state

Siam as Buffer State


Buddhist affairs

Buddhist Affairs

  • Rama IV also adopted the discipline of local Mon monkas he saw many monks during that time were not so disciplined. Thus he founded a new sect in which called “Dhammayutika Nikaya”. This sect observed precepts stricter than the majority monks, later were called “Maha Nikaya”.


Rama v 1868 1910

Rama V (1868 - 1910)

  • Rama V or King Chulalongkorn, Rama IV's son, continued the throne when he was 15 years old. Rama V was the first Siamese king to have a full western education.


Survival of colonization

Survival of Colonization

  • In 1886, Siam lost some territory to French, Laos and British Burma accorded the foreign powers intercede. After that King Chulalongkorn declared Thailand as an independent kingdom on the 23rd of October.


Thai history iii

  • In 1893 the French authorities in Indochina used a minor border dispute to provoke a crisis. French gunboats appeared at Bangkok, and demanded the cession of Lao territories east of theMekong.


Seize of bangkok

Seize of Bangkok


Thai history iii

  • The King appealed to the British, but the British minister told the King to settle on whatever terms he could get, and he had no choice but to comply.


Thai history iii

  • Britain's only gesture was an agreement with France guaranteeing the integrity of the rest of Siam. In exchange, Siam had to give up its claim to the Tai-speaking Shan region of north-eastern Burma to the British.


Thai history iii

  • The French, however, continued to pressure Siam, and in 1906–1907 they manufactured another crisis. This time Siam had to concede French control of territory on the west bank of the Mekong opposite Luang Prabang and aroundChampasakin southern Laos, as well as western Cambodia.


Thai history iii

  • The British interceded to prevent more French bullying of Siam, but their price, in 1909 was the acceptance of British sovereignty over ofKedah,Kelantan,Perlisand TerengganuunderAnglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909.


Thai history iii

  • All of these "lost territories" were on the fringes of the Siamese sphere of influence and had never been securely under their control, but being compelled to abandon all claim to them was a substantial humiliation to both king and country.


Thai history iii

  • David K. Wyattdescribes King Chulalongkorn as "broken in spirit and health" following the 1893 crisisand is the basis for the change in the name of the country; with the loss of these territoriesGreat Siamwas now no more, the king now ruled only the coreThai lands.


Nationalism

Nationalism

  • In the early 20th century these crises were adopted by the increasingly nationalist government as symbols of the need for the country to assert itself against the West and its neighbors.


Thai history iii

  • Meanwhile, reform continued apace transforming an absolute monarchy based on relationships of power into a modern, centralized nation state.

  • The process was increasingly under the control of Rama V's sons, who were all educated in Europe.


Thai history iii

  • Railways and telegraph lines united the previously remote and semi-autonomous provinces. 

  • The currency was tied to thegold standardand a modern system of taxation replaced the arbitrary exactions and labor service of the past.


Tradition reforms

Tradition Reforms

  • Rama V started to reform the tradition, legal and administrative realm by allowing officials to sit on chairs during royal audiences. Under the reign of Rama V, Thailand developed relations with European nations and the USA. 


King chulalongkorn

King Chulalongkorn

  • He introduced schools, roads, railways, and Thailand's first post office. He even established civil service system.

  • In 1892, Rama V overhauled the administration of Siam to a form of cabinet government with 12 ministers.


Thai history iii

  • The biggest problem was the shortage of trained civil servants, and many foreigners had to be employed until new schools could be built and Siamese graduates produced. By 1910, when the King died, Siam had become at least a semi-modern country, and continued to escape colonial rule.


Thai history iii

VDO

  • Lands of Thailand


Rama vi 1910 1925

Rama VI(1910 - 1925)

  • Rama VI or King Vajiravudh, took the throne from 1910 to 1925. During his short reign, he introduced theWesternization to Thailand.


Thai history iii

  • He introduced the primary school education.

  • Thai women were encouraged to grow their hair at a certain length.

  • Surnames were introduced

  • Football was introduced in Thailand. 


Thai women and girls in early ratttanakosin period

Thai women and girls in Early RatttanakosinPeriod


Costumes for thai women

Costumes for Thai Women


Western education

Western Education

  • He had been educated in Britain. Indeed one of Siam's problems was the widening gap between the westernised royal family and upper aristocracy and the rest of the country. It took another 20 years for western education to extend to the rest of the bureaucracy and the army: a potential source of conflict.


Thai history iii

  • KingVajiravudh, knew that the rest of the 'new' nation could not be excluded from government forever, but he had no faith in western-style democracy. He applied his observation of the success of the British monarchy in ruling of India, appearing more in public and instituting more royal ceremonies.


Thai history iii

  • However Rama VI also carried on his father's modernisation plan. Polygamy was abolished, primary education made compulsory, and in 1916higher educationcame to Siam with the founding ofChulalongkorn University, which in time became the seedbed of a new Siamese intelligentsia.


Thai history iii

  • Bangkok became more and more the capital of the new nation of Siam. Rama VI's government began several 'nation-wide' development projects, despite the financial hardship. New roads, bridges,railways,hospitalsand schools mushroomed throughout the country with national budget from Bangkok.


Thai history iii

  • King Vajiravudh's style of government differed from that of his father. In the beginning of the sixth reign, the king continued to use his father's team and there was no sudden break in the daily routine of government. Much of the running of daily affairs was therefore in the hands of experienced and competent men.


Thai history iii

  • Because of them, Siam owed many progressive steps, such as the development of a national plan for the education of the whole populace, the setting up of clinics where free vaccination was given against smallpox, and the continuing expansion of railways.


Thai history iii

  • However, senior posts were gradually filled with members of the King's coterie when a vacancy occurred through death, retirement, or resignation. By 1915, half the cabinet consisted of new faces.


World war i

World War I

  • In 1917 Siam declared war onGerman EmpireandAustria-Hungary, mainly to gain favour with the British and the French. Siam's token participation in World War I secured it a seat at theVersailles Peace Conference.


Thai history iii

  • ForeignMinisterDevawongse

    used this opportunity to argue for the repeal of the 19th century treaties and the restoration of full Siamese sovereignty. The United States obliged in 1920, while France and Britain delayed until 1925.


Post world war i

Post World War I

  • This victory gained the king some popularity, but it was soon undercut by discontent over other issues, such as his extravagance, which became more noticeable when a sharp postwar recession hit Siam in 1919.


Patriarchy

Patriarchy

  • There was also the fact that the king had no son. He also obviously preferred the company of men to women (a matter which of itself did not much concern Siamese opinion, but which did undermine the stability of the monarchy because of the absence of heirs).


Transition

Transition

  • When Rama VI died suddenly in 1925, aged only 44, the monarchy was already in a weakened state. He was succeeded by his younger brotherPrajadhipok.


Rama vii 1925 1935

Rama VII (1925 – 1935)

  • Rama VII or King Prachadhipok was Rama VI's brother. He changed Siam's form of government from absolute monarchy to democracy. This revolution developed the constitutional monarchy along British lines, with mixed military and civilian group in power.


Thai history iii

  • Unlike his predecessor, the king diligently read virtually all state papers from ministerial submissions to petitions by citizens. Within half a year only one fourth of Vajiravhud's ministers stayed on, the rest having been replaced by members of the royal family. On the one hand, these appointments brought back men of talent and experience, on the other, it signaled a return to royal oligarchy.


Thai history iii

  • The initial legacy that Prajadhipok received from his elder brother were problems of economy: the finances of the state were in chaos, the budget heavily in deficit, and the royal accounts an accountant's nightmare of debts and questionable transactions. Other countries were deep in theGreat Depressionfollowing World War I did not help the situation either.


Thai history iii

  • The first act of Prajadipok as king entailed an institutional innovation intended to restore confidence in the monarchy and government, the creation of theSupreme Council of the State.


Thai history iii

  • This privy council was made up of a number of experienced and extremely competent members of the royal family, including the long time Minister of the Interior (and Chulalongkorn's right-hand man) Prince Damrong.


Thai history iii

  • Gradually these princes arrogated increasing power by monopolising all the main ministerial positions. Many of them felt it their duty to make amends for the mistakes of the previous reign, but it was not generally appreciated.


Thai history iii

  • With the help of this council, the king managed to restore stability to the economy, although at a price of making a significant amount of the civil servants redundant and cutting the salary of those that remained. This was obviously unpopular among the officials, and was one of the trigger events for the coup of 1932.


Thai history iii

  • Prajadhipok then turned his attention to the question of future politics in Siam. Inspired by the British example, the King wanted to allow the common people to have a say in the country's affair by the creation of a parliament.


Thai history iii

  • A proposed constitution was ordered to be drafted, but the King's wishes were rejected by

    his advisers, who felt that the population was not yet ready for democracy.


Thai history iii

  • In 1932, with the country deep in depression, the Supreme Council opted to introduce cuts in official spending, including the military budget. The King foresaw that these policies might create discontent, especially in the army, and he therefore convened a special meeting of officials to explain why the cuts were necessary.


Thai history iii

  • Serious political disturbances were threatened in the capital, and in April the king agreed to introduce a constitution under which he would share power with a prime minister. This was not enough for the radical elements in the army, however.


1932 coup

1932 Coup

  • On June 24, 1932, while the king was holidaying at the seaside, the Bangkok garrison mutinied and seized power, led by a group of 49 officers known as "the Promoters". Thus ended 150 years of Siamese absolute monarchy.


General phibul songkhram

General Phibul Songkhram

  • At that time, Phibul Songkhram was a key military leader in the 1932 coup. He maintained his position and power from 1938 until the end of World War II.


Rama viii 1935 1946

Rama VIII (1935 – 1946)

  • Rama VIII or King Ananda Mahidol, a nephew of Rama VII, took the throne in 1935 but was assassinated under mysterious circumstances in 1946. His brother King Bhumipol Aduldej succeeded as Rama IX.


Rama ix since 1946

Rama IX (Since 1946)

  • Under Rama IX's government, the country's name was officially changed from "Siam" to "Thailand" in 1946 which was defined in Thai as "Prathet Thai", the word "Prathet" means "country" and the word "Thai" means "free" referring to the Thai races.


Thai history iii

VDO

  • Correction: Land of Thailand


Assignments

Assignments

  • Select 1 essay from the book “Essays on Thailand” to present on Thursday 13th of June. (10 points)


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