problems in replication and protein synthesis
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Problems in Replication and Protein Synthesis. Mutations . -mutation- random change in genetic material -can happen during replication, transcription, translation, or cell division. Causes. Radiation and Chemicals can also cause mutations (UV rays, x-rays, nuclear radiation).

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Presentation Transcript
mutations
Mutations

-mutation- random change in genetic material

-can happen during replication, transcription, translation, or cell division

causes
Causes
  • Radiation and Chemicals can also cause mutations
  • (UV rays, x-rays, nuclear radiation)
deletions and insertion frame shift
Deletions and Insertion(Frame shift)

-part of the DNA is deleted or inserted

A-T-C-G-T-T-G-C-A Original

A-T-C-A-G-T-T-G-C-A Insertion

A-T-C--T-T-G-C-A Deletion

duplications frameshift
Duplications (Frameshift)

-part of the DNA is duplicated

substitutions
Substitutions
  • One base pair is switched for another
  • A-T-C-G-T-T-G-C-A Original
  • A-T-C-G-C-T-G-C-A Substitution
inversions
Inversions

-part of the DNA is reversed

A-T-C-G-T-T-G-C-A

A-T-C-G-T-A-C-G-T-

translocations
Translocations

-part of the DNA is moved to a different spot

A-A-A-T-C-G-T-A-C

T-C-G-A-A-A-T-A-C

nondisjunction
Nondisjunction

Nondisjunction- failure of homologous chromosomes to separate normally during meiosis.

predicting proteins
Predicting Proteins
  • Predict the protein
  • DNA = ATG CGG
  • RNA = UAC GCC
  • Prot. = Tyr Ala
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