The biosphere
Download
1 / 26

The Biosphere - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 88 Views
  • Uploaded on

The Biosphere. Chapter 3. What is ECOLOGY. 1866 German Biologist Ernst Haeckel first coined the term ecology. Came from the Greek word oikos meaning “house” Defined today as the study of interactions among living organisms and their environment. The Biosphere. ECOSYSTEM. community.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' The Biosphere' - lester-shaw


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
The biosphere

The Biosphere

Chapter 3


What is ecology
What is ECOLOGY

  • 1866 German Biologist Ernst Haeckel first coined the term ecology.

  • Came from the Greek word oikos meaning “house”

  • Defined today as the study of interactions among living organisms and their environment


The Biosphere

ECOSYSTEM

community

population

individual


Energy flow
Energy Flow

  • The sun is the main source of energy for life on earth.

  • < 1 % of all sunlight that reaches earth is used by living organisms.

  • What happens to the rest?



Producers or autotrophs
Producers or Autotrophs

  • Use sunlight or chemicals to make their own food.

  • Examples:


Photosynthesis

  • 6CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2

  • Performed on land by plants and in water by algae.


Can organisms make their own food without the aid of sunlight
Can organisms make their own food without the aid of sunlight?

  • Chemosynthesis: using chemical energy to make carbohydrates.

  • Usually performed bacteria found in harsh environments

    • Ocean vents, volcanoes, hot-acidic


Consumers or heterotrophs
Consumers or heterotrophs sunlight?

  • Herbivores

  • Carnivores

  • Omnivores

  • Detritivores

  • Decomposers


Food chains
Food Chains sunlight?


Food webs

More complex than food chains sunlight?

A complex net of interactions among organisms. (interdependence)

Food Webs


Trophic levels
Trophic Levels sunlight?

  • Each location or step in a food chain or food web represents a trophic level.

  • Examples: producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, etc.


Ecological pyramids
Ecological pyramids sunlight?

  • Only about ten percent of the energy available within a trophic level is transferred to oragnisms at the next higher level.


Other pyramids
Other pyramids: sunlight?

  • Biomass and numbers


Cycles of matter
Cycles of matter sunlight?

  • Unlike energy, matter is constantly being recycled in an ecosystem.

  • Known as biogeochemical cycles


Transpiration
Transpiration sunlight?

  • The release of water from the leaves of plants.

  • Water is exchanged through a plant’s stomata.

  • Evaporation is the second process that releases water into the atmosphere.


Carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle sunlight?

  • Biological processes (photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition)

  • Geochemical processes (volcanoes)

  • Biogeochemical (fossil fuels)

  • Human activity (factories, deforestation, car exhaust)


Nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle sunlight?

  • All organisms need nitrogen to live.

  • Most abundant gas in atmosphere (80%)

  • Nitrogen gas is unusable for plants

  • Must be “fixed” or changed into the nitrate or nitrite form by bacteria in the soil. Known as nitrogen fixation


Phosphorus cycle
Phosphorus cycle sunlight?

  • P is important in the production of DNA and RNA.

  • Unlike water,oxygen, and nitrogen, phosphorus is NOT found in the atmosphere. Found in rocks and minerals.


Nutrient limitation
Nutrient Limitation sunlight?

  • When a single nutrient is scarce for a particular ecosystem and limits the growth of organisms in that ecosystem.

  • Assignment: page 83-84 1-10, 12, 15, 16, 18, 22, 23, 29

    • Page 85 1-7


ad