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CHAPTER 7 “ The Axial Skeleton” Review your A&P revealed discs Course objectives: Define and identify the bones of the axial skeleton. Axial Skelton. 80 total bones consists of the bones that form the long axis of the body including the: Skull ( total 28 with ear bones )

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CHAPTER 7“The Axial Skeleton”Review your A&P revealed discsCourse objectives:Define and identify the bones of the axial skeleton

Axial skelton
Axial Skelton

  • 80 total bones

  • consists of the bones that form the long axis of the body including the:

    • Skull (total 28 with ear bones)

    • Vertebral column [(total 26) C7;T12; L5; S1; Co1]

    • Bony thorax [ribs and sternum (total 25)]

    • Hyoid bone (1)

Skull bones review a p revealed discs animation of skull
Skull BonesReview A&P revealed discsanimation of skull

  • the skull has two major divisions: Cranium and Facial bones

    Cranium – the 8 bones that enclose the brain.

    -1 occipital, 1 frontal, 2 parietal, 2 temporal, 1 sphenoid and 1 ethmoid.

  • These typical flat bones of the cranium are connected by a special kind of joint called a suture (Synarthroses).

  • Cranium

    • Made up of 2 major divisions:

      • Calvarium (skull cap)

      • Base

    • Base contains three large depressions (fossa):

      • Anterior cranial fossa where the frontal lobes sit

      • Middle cranial fossa where the temporal lobes sit

      • Posterior cranial fossa where the cerebellum sits

    Sutures sutural bones
    Sutures/Sutural Bones

    • Sutures (synarthroses) are immovable fibrous joints.

      -all bones in the skull, except for the jaw, are united by sutures. The major sutures are:

      -Coronal -Sagittal

      -Squamous -Lamboid

      Sutural bones- small bones that occur within the sutures, especially the lamboid suture. They are not present in all people.

    Facial bones
    Facial bones

    • There are 14 bones that can be thought of as creating the face.

    • As part of this function they provide:

      - protection for many sense organs,

      -anchors for many muscles

      -the openings for air and food to pass.

      Facial Bones

      2-maxillae; 2-palatine; 2-nasal; 2- zygomatic;

      2-lacrimal; 2-inf nasal conchae; 1- vomer; and 1-mandible

    Sphenoid bone
    Sphenoid bone

    Looks like a Bat in flight. Greater and lesser wings; optic foramen; sella turcica, superior orbital fissure. Dorsal view.

    Sphenoid bone1
    Sphenoid bone

    Dorsal view

    Anterior view

    Ethmoid bone
    Ethmoid bone

    • Anterior to

      sphenoid bone

      forms anterior

      base of skull

      and nasal cavity.

    • Cribriform plate.

    • Crista gali

    • Perpendicular


    Foramen orbits
    Foramen/ Orbits

    • Foramen: Special openings in bones where nerves, blood vessels enter into the bone cavity.

      - Ex.: Foramen magnum, Supraorbital Infraorbital, Mental, Jugular, Olfactory, Mandibular

    • Orbits: Cone shaped bony cavities that hold the eyes, fat, occular muscles and tear glands.

    Meatus sinuses
    Meatus/ Sinuses

    • Meatus: a canal or opening into bone

      - Ex.: external auditory, internal acoustic

    • Sinus: cavities within bones filled with air.

      -Ex.: frontal, ethmoid, sphenoid and maxillary sinuses

    Cranial fossa
    Cranial fossa

    Fossa are depressions or cavities in the skull.

    The fetal skull
    The Fetal Skull

    • Sutures are called fontanels in fetus.

    • Fontanels

      -Frontal (anterior)

      -Occipital (posterior)

      -Sphenoidal (anterior lateral)

      -Mastoid (posterior lateral)