Topic 2 morphology
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 48

Topic 2: Morphology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 262 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Topic 2: Morphology. Wu Heping MA Program in Linguistics and Language teaching Northwest Normal University Wuhpnet.googlepages.com/linguistics Group.google.com/group/linguistics_nwnu Lanzhou 2006. Knowledge of words: what do we mean by knowing a word? Open and closed class

Download Presentation

Topic 2: Morphology

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Topic 2 morphology

Topic 2: Morphology

Wu Heping

MA Program in Linguistics and Language teaching

Northwest Normal University

Wuhpnet.googlepages.com/linguistics

Group.google.com/group/linguistics_nwnu

Lanzhou 2006


Topic 2 morphology

  • Knowledge of words: what do we mean by knowing a word?

  • Open and closed class

  • Definitions of key notion

  • The hierarchical architecture of words

  • English word formation

  • Morphology and lexicon


Knowledge of words

Knowledge of Words

  • A child of 6 knows 13,000 words.

  • Average high school graduate knows about 60,000 words.

  • Webster’s Third International Dictionary of the English Language has over 450,000 entries.

    • One can learn thousands of words in a language and still not know the language.

  • To know a word means to know aspects of a word: sound, meaning, spelling, grammatical properties, collocations, connotations, context, etymology, etc.

  • But what is crucial is to segment from a string of sounds a basic unit of meaning, like Isleptfortenhoursyesterday.

  • To know a word thus means the ability to map a string of sounds with a particular meaning and specific grammatical properties.


  • Two classes of words

    Two classes of words

    • Open class: lexical categories

    • Closed class: grammatical categories

    • Definitions of the key notions:

      • Morphology, morpheme, lexicon, inflection, derivation


    Types of words open class

    Types of words: open class

    Lexical categories-"name" things and describe actions and ideas


    Types of words closed class

    Types of words: closed class

    Grammatical categories- express relations


    Definitions

    Definitions

    • Morphology: The study of words and the rules for word formation in (a) language.

      • Central Issue: how people make up and understand words they have never encountered before.


    Definitions1

    Definitions

    • Morpheme: The smallest part of a word that carries meaning.

    • Lexicon: A dictionary. Speakers have a "mental lexicon" in which the phonological form of a word is represented associated with its lexical category.


    Definitions2

    Definitions

    "content" morphemes… words that "name" things and describe actions and ideas ex: "sing, purse, rabbit ...”, or any morpheme we add to a word to change it into a different part of speech “-ly, -er, ...” like “happy (adj.)  happily (adv.)”, drive (v.)  driver (n.)”

    "function" morphemes… grammatical words -- words that help us construct sentences and phrases which join words into ideas, like prepositions ('in', 'of', 'on') articles ('the', 'an'),


    Morphemes

    Morphemes

    • …the smallest part of a word with independent meaning.

      • apple

      • here

      • there

      • help

      • helped

      • helps

      • helping

      • unhelpful

    help + ed

    help + s

    help + ing

    un + help + ful


    Morphemes1

    Morphemes

    Productivity

    one morpheme: taste

    two morphemes: taste+ful

    three morphemes:dis+taste+ful

    four morphemes: dis+taste+ful+ly


    Definitions3

    Definitions

    • Bound morpheme: morphemes that cannot stand alone, but must be attached to other morphemes. They can be further classified according to

    • 1). where they attach,

    • prefixation

    • suffixation

    • 2). what function they perform

    • derivational (changes the part of speech and

    • attaches to a root)

    • inflectional (modifies the grammatical form

    • and attaches to a stem)

    • Free morphemes: morphemes that can occur as an

    • independent word.

    • e.g. careless, lesser, lesson

    • probable, possible


    Definitions4

    Definitions

    • Affix: The general term for morphemes attached to a word. Four kinds of affixes:

    • Prefix -- beginning of word

    • Infix -- internal to the word

    • Suffix -- end of word

    • Circumfix -- "around" a word (both ends)


    Definitions5

    Definitions

    • Root, Stem, or base: the free morpheme to which an affix is attached.

    • -- root: cannot be analyzed into smaller parts

    • (system, cran, boy, Chomsky)

    • --stem: root combined with a bound, derivational affix

    • (Chomskyite, believeable)


    Affixes

    Affixes

    Prefixes

    English: in+, dis+, un+, etc.

    in+abilitydis+abilityun+able

    in+consistentdis+memberun+tangle

    in+sufficientdis+placeun+happy

    Isthmus Zapotec: ka+

    zigi"chin"ka+zigi"chins"

    zike "shoulder”ka+zige"shoulders"

    diaga"ear"ka+diaga"ears"


    Affixes1

    Affixes

    Infixes

    Tagalog: +um+

    bili b+um+ili

    "buy""to buy"

    sulat s+um+ulat

    "write""to write"

    kuhak+um+uha

    "take”"to take”


    Affixes2

    Affixes

    • Suffixes

    • English: +ment, +ly, +stance

    • judg+mentbrief+lyclock+wise

    • establish+menthappi+lymethod+wise

    • abandon+mentangri+ly

    • In English, the roles played the prefix and suffix are different

    • Prefix: change the semantic content of the word

    • Suffix: change the grammatical category of the word


    Affixes3

    Affixes

    • Circumfixes

    • Chickasaw: ik+…+o

    • chokma ik+chokm+o

    • "he is good” "he isn't good"

    • lakna ik+lakn+o

    • "it is yellow”"it isn't yellow"

    • palli ik+pall+o

    • "it is hot”"it isn't hot”

    • tiwwi ik+tiww+o

    • "he opens (it)” "he doesn't open (it)"


    The hierarchical architecture of words

    The hierarchical architecture of words

    • Morphological rules: rules about how a new word is derived.

      • Adj+ify=verb

      • V+ment=noun

    • Rules can be represented by a tree diagram, which shows the hierarchical structure of a word


    Rules can be represented by a tree diagram which shows the hierarchical structure of a word

    Rules can be represented by a tree diagram, which shows the hierarchical structure of a word

    • V+-tion=N

    • De-+V=V

    • Adj+-ize=v

    • N+-al=adj


    English word formation

    English word-formation

    • Affixation, derivation: examination, decontextualize

    • Compounding: green back, green line, green hand, greenhouse

    • Conversion: take a walk, to dog sb, to father a child.

    • Backformation: edit, beg

    • Clipping: exam, bus

    • Blending:

    • Coinage: Xerox

    • Borrowing: Kungfu, kowtow,


    Definitions6

    Definitions

    Derivational morphemes: morphemes which make or "derive" a new word, sometimes changing the lexical category of the word. (e.g., count+able, re+produce)

    Inflectional morphemes: morphemes that indicate grammatical roles, not changing the lexical meaning of the word. (e.g., walk+s, walk+ing)


    Inflectional morphemes

    Inflectional Morphemes

    • Grammatical markers (tense, number, gender, case)

    • Always attached to complete words


    Inflectional morphemes1

    Inflectional Morphemes

    English Inflectional Morphemes

    -s third person singular present

    -edpast tense

    -ingprogressive

    -en past participle

    -splural

    -’spossessive

    -ercomparative

    -estsuperlative


    Hierarchical structure of words

    Hierarchical Structure of Words


    Hierarchical structure of words1

    Hierarchical Structure of Words

    Derivational affixes:

    English

    adjective  noun

    [happy] Adj + [ness]  [happiness]N

    [active] Adj + [ity]  [activity] N

    noun  adjective … adverb

    [beauty] N + [ful][beautiful] Adj

    [[beautiful] Adj+[ly ][beautifully]Adv


    Affixation as a word formation process

    Affixation as a word-formation process

    Other word-formation processes:

    • Eponymy: words are derived from proper names (e.g., sandwich, jumbo)

    • Blending: a single word is derived from the combination, with deletion, of two words (smog=smoke+fog)

    • Compounding: a single word is derived by combining two words, without deletion (girlfriend, paperclip)


    Affixation as a word formation process1

    Affixation as a word-formation process

    Other word-formation processes:

    • Acronym: words are derived from the initials of several words (UNESCO = United National Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization)

    • Back-formation: Words are derived from incorrect morphological analysis (enthuse from “enthusiasm”)

    • Abbreviation:Words are shortened forms of longer words (gasoline-->gas)


    Morphology problem solving

    Morphology problem-solving

    • By finding repeated forms and using the process of elimination, identify and divide up words into morphemes.

    • Determine the meaning of the morphemes isolated in step 1.)

    • Describe rules for allomorph occurrence, if any.

    • Describe the rules for forming nouns, verbs, etc. and the ordering of morphemes.


    Example problem isthmus zapotec

    Example Problem (Isthmus Zapotec)

    [palu] “stick” [spalube] “his stick”[spalulu] “your stick”

    [ku˘ba] “dough” [sku˘babe] “his dough”[sku˘balu] “your dough”

    [tapa] “four” [stapabe] “his four”[stapalu] “your four”

    [geta] “tortilla” [sketabe] “his tortilla”[sketalu] “your tortilla”

    [bere] “chicken” [sperebe] “his chicken” [sperelu] “your chicken”

    [do?o] “rope” [sto?obe] “his rope”[sto?olu] “ your rope”


    Example problem isthmus zapotec1

    Example Problem (Isthmus Zapotec)

    [palu] “stick” [spalube] “his stick”[spalulu] “your stick”

    [ku˘ba] “dough” [sku˘babe] “his dough”[sku˘balu] “your dough”

    [tapa] “four” [stapabe] “his four”[stapalu] “your four”

    [geta] “tortilla” [sketabe] “his tortilla”[sketalu] “your tortilla”

    [bere] “chicken” [sperebe] “his chicken” [sperelu] “your chicken”

    [do?o] “rope” [sto?obe] “his rope”[sto?olu] “ your rope”

    Isolate Morphemes: s+__,__+be, __+lu, and stems

    Figure out meanings: s=possion, be=3rd sg., lu=2nd sg.

    Note allomorphs: geta/s+keta, bere/s+pere, do?o/s+to?o,

    Describe the phonology: Stem initial voiced stops become voiceles when preceded by [s]


    Example problem zoque

    Example Problem (Zoque)

    [kenu] “he looked” [kenpa] “he looks”

    [sihku] “he laughed” [sikpa] “he laughs”

    [wihtu] “he walked” [witpa] “he walks”

    [ka?u] “he died” [ka?pa] “he dies”

    [cihcu] “it tore”* [cicpa] “it tears”

    [sohsu] “it cooked”[sospa] “it cooks”

    * [c] = voiceless palatal stop


    Example problem zoque1

    Example Problem (Zoque)

    [kenu] “he looked” [kenpa] “he looks”

    [sihku] “he laughed” [sikpa] “he laughs”

    [wihtu] “he walked” [witpa] “he walks”

    [ka?u] “he died” [ka?pa] “he dies”

    [cihcu] “it tore”* [cicpa] “it tears”

    [sohsu] “it cooked”[sospa] “it cooks”

    Isolate Morphemes: __+u, __+pa, and stems

    Figure out meanings: u=3rd. sg. past, pa=3rd sg.pres

    Allomorphs:cihc+u/cic+pa, sihk+u/sik+pa, sohs+u / sos+pa,...

    Describe the phonology: [h] is deleted when [pa] is added (cluster simplification through deletion).


    Example problem samoan

    Example Problem (Samoan)

    Reduplication in Samoan verbs

    ma.na.o "he wishes” ma.na.na.o "they wish"

    ma.tu.a "he is old"ma.tu.tu.a "they are old"

    ma.lo.si"he is strong"ma.lo.lo.si "they are strong"

    pu.no.u "he bends"pu.no.no.u "they bend"

    a.ta.ma.ki "he is wise”a.ta.ma.ma.ki "they’re wise"

    sa.va.li "he travels"pe.pe.se "they sing"

    la.ga"he weaves"


    Example problem samoan1

    Example Problem (Samoan)

    1.) What is Samoan for: a.) "they weave", b.) "they travel", "he sings"?

    2.) What kind of morpheme is the reduplicated form?

    bound/free

    derivational/inflectional

    3.) What is the morphological rule for forming the plural verb form from the singular verb form?


    Morphology and lexicon

    Morphology and Lexicon

    • Mental Lexicon: how are words represented in the mind.

      • The role of phonology

      • The role of word meaning

      • Localist and distributed representation

      • Lexical neighbours

      • Lexical categories

      • Lexical variables


    Mental lexicon how are words represented in the mind

    Mental Lexicon: how are words represented in the mind.


    Morphology and mental lexicon

    Morphology and mental lexicon

    • The role of phonology

    • The role of word meaning

    • Localist and distributed representation

    • Lexical neighbours

    • Lexical categories

    • Lexical variables


    The role of phonology

    The role of phonology

    • The phonological form of words determines the functional structure of the mental lexicon.

    • Evidence: in malapropisms the target word (e.g. monotony) and its erroneous substitute (e.g. monogamy) tend to resemble each other in their initial segments, number of syllables and stress pattern.

    • Based on this evidence, it can be inferred that there is a single mental lexicon organised for speech perception and “cross-wired” for production.


    The role of word meaning

    The role of word meaning

    • Category specific impairments, in which the processing of a particular semantic class of words such as tools, furniture, or fruit may be disproportionately impaired

      evidence concerning the organisation of the lexical and conceptual knowledge.


    Localist and distributed representation

    Localist and distributed representation

    • Localist lexical representations: a word was stored at an individual address or node.

    • The lexicon has also been modelled in terms of distributed mappings between orthographic, phonological and semantic representations. Such connectionist models involve superpositional storage: all the lexical information of a particular type is stored across the same representational substrate. In this sense, an individual word’s role in the lexicon is constrained by all of the rest of the words in the lexicon.


    Topic 2 morphology

    • Orthographic Phonological syntactic-semantic

    • access file access file access file

    • master file

    pig

    /pig/

    PIG

    cow pig


    Lexical neighbours

    Lexical neighbours

    • Words in close relationships are more likely to be interfered, such as might exist by changing one segment in a spoken word or one letter in a written word.

    • Sometimes these neighbours have shared a rime, a word beginning, or a sequence of segments representing the whole of the smaller word, but the two words in each relationship have typically sounded similar in a clear, intuitive sense.


    Lexical categories

    Lexical categories

    • The lexical categories fall into two broader types:

      • function words

      • content words.

      • function words and content words may be differentially impaired, as in Broca’s aphasia, and differentially processed in normal speaking and listening and reading.

      • Such differences may partly depend on physical distinctions between the two word types

        • in English, function words tend to be shorter, more frequent and less acoustically prominent than content words.

        • However, function words are also seen as being more closely involved in the articulation of syntactic structure, and seem to be better processed in the left hemisphere.

      • Significant distinctions in typical phonological form have also been observed between different types of content word: for instance, in English, nouns tend to contain more nasals than verbs, whereas verbs tend to contain more front vowels than nouns.

    • All of these differences between lexical categories suggest possible large-scale distinctions in the functional and even the physical architecture of the mental lexicon.


    Cohort model

    Cohort Model (交股模型)

    • Marslen-Wilson

    • Proposed for autditory word recognition

      • Recognition speed and recognition point

    • Hypothesis

      • 1st stage: auditory/phonetic information activates words similar: bottom-up processing

      • 2nd stage: all information effective in excluding words

      • 3rd stage: selected item integrated

    • Development

      • Word frequency into consideration

      • Marslen-Wilson: activation level

    • Advantages: more sensitive to the left-to-right nature of speech


    Automatic activation

    Automatic activation

    sport figure

    sing door carry

    turf turtlegoldturk turkey

    water turn

    turbo turquoise

    turnip turmoil

    TURN


    Lateral inhibition

    Lateral inhibition

    sport figure

    sing door carry

    turf turtle gold turk turkey

    water turn

    turbo turquoise

    turnip turmoil

    TURN


    M350 1st component sensitive to lexical factors but not affected by competition

    M350 = 1st component sensitive to lexical factors but not affected by competition

    M350

    Activation

    Competition

    Selection/Recognition

    TURN

    TURNIP

    level of activation

    TURF

    TURTLE

    resting level

    time

    Stimulus: TURN


  • Login