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Improper use of Ag Machinery in Iraq by Iraqi Farmers AL Khanfous,Talal Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering O klahoma State University 04 / 18 / 2012. 1. Agricultural Area of ​​Iraq

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Improper use of Ag Machinery in Iraq by

Iraqi Farmers

AL Khanfous,Talal

Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering

Oklahoma State University

04 / 18 / 2012

1


Introduction

Agricultural Area of ​​Iraq

Republic of Iraq is located in southwest of Asia and north- eastern part of the Arab world. Iraq is bordered by turkey in the south, Iran in the east, Syria, Jordan, and Saudi Arabia in the west, and Kuwait and Saudi Arabia in the south. Agriculture land in Iraq is no more than 12 million hectares, equal 26% of the total area of ​​Iraq. They area which is already planting in Iraq is 5.5 million hectares, equal 48% of the Agriculture land and 13% of the total area of Iraq.

Introduction

2


Iraqi farmers

1- More than 60 % of them are not educated .

2- Inherited their farms from their parents and grandparents.

3- Many of them do not have ability to reading and writing.

4- They still used old agricultural techniques .

5- They do not familiar with the modern agricultural technology

7- Most of them still do agricultural operations by hand or animals .

8- They do not have experience to use agricultural machines

correctly.

Iraqi Farmers

3


Agricultural mechanization

Agricultural mechanization in Iraq has suffered from,

1- using incorrectly by Iraqi farmers.

2- there are a little maintenance workshops to fix agricultural machineries and equipments if there are problems.

3- more than 70% of agricultural machines are old which go back to (30 or 40) years ago.

4- All agricultural machines in Iraq have old systems I mean there is no connect between machine and computer.

AGRICULTURAL MECHANIZATION

4


Iraqi farmer and machines

We point that Iraqi farmers do not have good skills to use their machines correctly because more of them are uneducated so they do not have good background to deal with them.

the misuse of machines causes to reduce the efficiency of machines and that means the working of them will be bad in field.

When they get malfunctions in their equipments they have no experience and ability to identify malfunctions and maintenances them .

As result as Lack of agricultural equipments and wrong using by Iraqi farmers , they like do agricultural operations by hand.

Iraqi farmer and machines

5


Agricultural machineries
Agricultural machineries their machines correctly because more of them are uneducated so they do not have good background to deal with them.

The reason of lack agricultural machines  is Iraq was not able to import agricultural machines for more than 30 years as a result of wars and the economic blockade imposed by the United Nations. During this period, Iraq was not able to manufacture machines because it had no resources and materials to manufacture.  Moreover, agricultural machines in Iraq are expired for many years ago so when they work , they do not work very good . That led farmers to using agriculture by hand. and that will reduce productivity of crops.

6


Total tractors in iraq
Total tractors in Iraq their machines correctly because more of them are uneducated so they do not have good background to deal with them.

7


Select size of machine

Before we do any agricultural operation, we have to know, their machines correctly because more of them are uneducated so they do not have good background to deal with them.

  • How many agricultural machines and equipments we have to use them in our fields.

  • Size of agricultural machines and equipments which use.

  • The age of agricultural equipments and machines.

  • How I can reduce fuel cost.

  • I s it best rent machine or to buy it?

  • Costs such as fuel cost, oil cost, labor cost, and maintenance cost.

  • Work hours per day.

select size of machine

8


Select size of machines

but Iraqi their machines correctly because more of them are uneducated so they do not have good background to deal with them.farmers do not have any skill to know how they select the size of machines in their farms so they do take care about this point but this point is so important we have to know it before use agricultural machines in our farms. If we do not take care for that we will lose a lot of money.

Fore example , when they use a big tractor which has high power with small plow which need low power to do tillage operation, they will lose more money because a big tractor use more gas and oil and all these money . So they tractor must be not big to lose more oil and gas and no small to be able to give us a good power.

Select size of machines

9


The results of agricultural neglect in iraq

As a result of all things I mention above, Iraqi their machines correctly because more of them are uneducated so they do not have good background to deal with them.agriculture became very poor and agricultural operations became uneconomical so a lot of farmers leave their farms and find another job for them to get money to support their families. As we know leave farms without planting for along time, they will change to unsuitable for agriculture. So Iraq will lose many agriculture land if we do not resolve all issues that Iraqi agriculture has them.

The results of agricultural neglect in Iraq

10


Recommendations

There are some recommend I recommend for resolve these issues,

1- make courses to teach Iraqi farmers reading and writing .

2- make some courses to teach them how they use agricultural machines, working of machines in the field, kinds of malfunctions and how they can maintenance them .

3- Teach how they select size of machines.

4- Import modern agricultural machines from famous companies such us John Deere because modern machines reduce losses money which farmers spend it for maintenance.

5- using new technologies such as connect machines with computer.

6- Iraqi agriculture ministry have to send agricultural engineers to farms to see all problems which farmers have them and help them to resolve all problems.

Recommendations

11



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