Animal Studies Grade 3

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Why study animals in Grade 3?. This unit of study builds on what students learned about insects in grade 2 and plants and animals in kindergarten and grade 1. In third grade, students will continue to refine their observation skills as they look at how animals can be classified based on their charac

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Animal Studies Grade 3

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1. Animal Studies Grade 3

2. Why study animals in Grade 3? This unit of study builds on what students learned about insects in grade 2 and plants and animals in kindergarten and grade 1. In third grade, students will continue to refine their observation skills as they look at how animals can be classified based on their characteristics. This is will help prepare them for the Structures of Life investigation in grade 4.

3. Table of Contents Background information: What every adult needs to know about animals Benchmarks and NH State Standards

4. Essential Questions and Big Ideas Essential Questions What’s the difference between living and nonliving things? How do we know that animals are alive? What body parts does the animal have that helps it to survive? What are all the ways that our animal babies are like their parents? What are the different stages of our animal’s life cycle? Where does our animal live and why does it live there? What does our animal need to grow? Big Ideas Animals have characteristics that distinguish them for other living things. Animals are grouped according to their features. Not all animals survive in their environment. If they don’t have the adaptations to survive- they die.

5. Suggested Scope and Sequence

6. Benchmarks: Identifying Concepts and Specific Ideas

7. Benchmarks: Science as Inquiry By the end of the 3rd grade, students should know that: Sometimes similar investigations give different results because of differences in the things being investigated, the methods used, or the circumstances in which the investigation is carried out, and sometimes just because of uncertainties in observations. It is not always easy to tell which. 1A/E1* Science is a process of trying to figure out how the world works by making careful observations and trying to make sense of those observations. 1A/E2** Scientific investigations may take many different forms, including observing what things are like or what is happening somewhere, collecting specimens for analysis, and doing experiments. 1B/E1* Because we expect science investigations that are done the same way to produce the same results, when they do not, it is important to try to figure out why. 1B/E2a* One reason for following directions carefully and for keeping records of one's work is to provide information on what might have caused differences in investigations. 1B/E2b Scientists' explanations about what happens in the world come partly from what they observe, partly from what they think. 1B/E3a Sometimes scientists have different explanations for the same set of observations. That usually leads to their making more observations to resolve the differences. 1B/E3bc Scientists do not pay much attention to claims about how something they know about works unless the claims are backed up with evidence that can be confirmed, along with a logical argument. 1B/E4

8. Benchmarks for Science Literacy: Grades 3-5 Life Science By the end of the 3rd grade, students should know that: A great variety of kinds of living things can be sorted into groups in many ways using various features to decide which things belong to which group. 5A/E1 There are millions of different kinds of individual organisms that inhabit the earth at any one time—some very similar to each other, some very different. 5A/E3** (SFAA Some likenesses between children and parents are inherited. Other likenesses are learned. 5B/E1* For offspring to resemble their parents, there must be a reliable way to transfer information from one generation to the next. 5B/E2 For any particular environment, some kinds of plants and animals thrive, some do not live as well, and some do not survive at all. 5D/E1* Organisms interact with one another in various ways besides providing food. 5D/E3a Changes in an organism's habitat are sometimes beneficial to it and sometimes harmful. 5D/E4 Almost all kinds of animals' food can be traced back to plants. 5E/E1 Over the whole earth, organisms are growing, dying, decaying, and new organisms are being produced by the old ones. 5E/E3 Individuals of the same kind differ in their characteristics, and sometimes the differences give individuals an advantage in surviving and reproducing. 5F/E1 Fossils can be compared to one another and to living organisms according to their similarities and differences. Some organisms that lived long ago are similar to existing organisms, but some are quite different. 5F/E2

9. New Hampshire Frameworks and Standards

10. NH Life Science 3-4 Grade Span Expectations part 1

11. NH Life Science 3-4 Grade Span Expectations part 2

12. NH Life Science 3-4 Grade Span Expectations part 3

13. NH Life Science 3-4 Grade Span Expectations part 4

14. NH Life Science 3-4 Grade Span Expectations part 5

15. Content and teaching standards based on the National Science Education Standards SCIENCE AS INQUIRY Develop students' abilities to do and understand scientific inquiry. Ask and answer questions. Plan and conduct simple investigations. Employ tools and techniques to gather data. Use data to construct reasonable explanations. Communicate investigations and explanations. Understand that scientists use different kinds of investigations and tools to develop explanations using evidence and knowledge. CONTENT: PHYSICAL SCIENCE Develop students' understanding of the properties of materials. Objects can have many properties, including size, weight, shape, color, and texture. CONTENT: EARTH SCIENCE Develop students' understanding of the properties of earth materials. Solid rocks and soils are earth materials. The physical properties of earth materials make them useful in different ways, such as for building materials or for growing plants. Develop students' understandings about changes in the earth. Natural forces such as ice, rain, wind, landslides, and volcanoes can break apart or smooth the surfaces of rocks. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Develop students' understandings about science and technology. Scientists use tools and scientific techniques to make better observations. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES Develop students' understanding of natural resources. Resources are things that we get from the environment, such as rocks and soil.

16. What is FOSS? FOSS is a research-based science curriculum for grades K–8 developed at the Lawrence Hall of Science, University of California at Berkeley. FOSS is also an ongoing research project dedicated to improving the learning and teaching of science. The FOSS project began over 20 years ago during a time of growing concern that our nation was not providing young students with an adequate science education. The FOSS program materials are designed to meet the challenge of providing meaningful science education for all students in diverse American classrooms and to prepare them for life in the 21st century. Development of the FOSS program was, and continues to be, guided by advances in the understanding of how youngsters think and learn. Science is an active enterprise, made active by our human capacity to think. Scientific knowledge advances when scientists observe objects and events, think about how they relate to what is known, test their ideas in logical ways, and generate explanations that integrate the new information into the established order. Thus the scientific enterprise is both what we know (content) and how we come to know it (process). The best way for students to appreciate the scientific enterprise, learn important scientific concepts, and develop the ability to think critically is to actively construct ideas through their own inquiries, investigations, and analyses. The FOSS program was created to engage students in these processes as they explore the natural world. (http://www.lawrencehallofscience.org/foss/introduction/index.html)

17. NH Frameworks Science Process Skills 3-4 part 1

18. NH Frameworks Science Process Skills 3-4 part 2

19. NH Frameworks Science Process Skills 3-4 part 3

20. NH Frameworks Science Process Skills 3-4 part 4

21. NH Frameworks Science Process Skills 3-4 part 5

22. Benchmarks: Science as Inquiry By the end of the 2nd grade, students should know that: People can often learn about things around them by just observing those things carefully, but sometimes they can learn more by doing something to the things and noting what happens. Tools such as thermometers, magnifiers, rulers, or balances often give more information about things than can be obtained by just observing things without their help. Describing things as accurately as possible is important in science because it enables people to compare their observations with those of others. When people give different descriptions of the same thing, it is usually a good idea to make some fresh observations instead of just arguing about who is right.

23. National Science Education Standards (Earth Space Science K-4) PROPERTIES OF EARTH MATERIALS Earth materials are solid rocks and soils, water, and the gases of the atmosphere. The varied materials have different physical and chemical properties, which make them useful in different ways, for example, as building materials, as sources of fuel, or for growing the plants we use as food. Earth materials provide many of the resources that humans use. Soils have properties of color and texture, capacity to retain water, and ability to support the growth of many kinds of plants, including those in our food supply. CHANGES IN THE EARTH AND SKY The surface of the earth changes. Some changes are due to slow processes, such as erosion and weathering, and some changes are due to rapid processes, such as landslides, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.

24. Assessment The following formative assessments will help you to assess your students’ level of understanding before you begin your investigations. (Look for them in your folder. If you need another copy, ask Terry.) Is it Living? Is it An Animal? Does It Have a Life Cycle? Functions of Living Things (You may want to revise this to change the language) Journey North Assessment page: This webpage has several ideas for assessment Summative Assessments: Bird Beak and Survival (NECAP released inquiry task) You need the materials and place mat. End the slideshow and double click on the booklet.

25. K-12 Broad Goals of Science Education Students will use inquiry strategies to investigate and understand the natural world. Students will demonstrate an understanding of key concepts and principles central to the biological, physical, and earth sciences, and engineering, while recognizing the interrelationship of all the sciences. Students will demonstrate an understanding of the basic laws which govern and explain phenomena observed in the natural world Students will demonstrate an understanding of, and be able to practice, the basic processes which scientists use to obtain and continually revise knowledge about the natural world. Students will perceive that scientific and technological knowledge is the result of the cumulative efforts of people, past and present, who have attempted to explain the world through an objective, peer-tested, rational approach to understanding natural phenomena and occurrences. Students will display a sense of curiosity and wonder about the natural world, and demonstrate an increasing awareness of the interdependence between all living things and the environment. Students will demonstrate their abilities to identify human needs and concerns and to engage in problem-solving processes to define the problem, research and generate solutions, and develop simulations and prototypes to test their ideas before implementation. Students will be able to apply rational, creative-thinking, and investigative skills and use scientific and technical knowledge in their roles as citizens, workers, family members, and consumers in an increasingly technological society. Students will use oral and written communication, mathematical representation, and physical and conceptual models to describe and explain scientific concepts and ideas, and will be able to apply scientific and technical knowledge. Students will know and employ safe practices and techniques in the laboratory, in field work or any other scientific investigation, and when using scientific or technological materials at home or work.

26. The Pebbles, Sand, and Silt Module emphasizes the development of observation and description skills and building explanations based on experience. This module supports the following National Science Education Standards.(FOSS, 2005) SCIENCE AS INQUIRY Develop students' abilities to do and understand scientific inquiry. Ask and answer questions. Plan and conduct simple investigations. Employ tools and techniques to gather data. Use data to construct reasonable explanations. Communicate investigations and explanations. Understand that scientists use different kinds of investigations and tools to develop explanations using evidence and knowledge CONTENT: PHYSICAL SCIENCE Develop students' understanding of the properties of materials. Objects can have many properties, including size, weight, shape, color, and texture CONTENT: EARTH SCIENCE Solid rocks and soils are earth materials. The physical properties of earth materials make them useful in different ways, such as for building materials or for growing plants. Develop students' understandings about changes in the earth. Natural forces such as ice, rain, wind, landslides, and volcanoes can break apart or smooth the surfaces of rocks. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Develop students' understandings about science and technology. Scientists use tools and scientific techniques to make better observations. SCIENCE IN PERSONAL AND SOCIAL PERSPECTIVES Develop students' understanding of natural resources. Resources are things that we get from the environment, such as rocks and soil

27. Ideas to consider when teaching about Animals These essays are from Benchmarks for Science Literacy. You’ll have to scroll down the page to read the essays.

28. The Earth (page 2) The motion of the earth and its position with regard to the sun and the moon have noticeable effects. The earth's one-year revolution around the sun, because of the tilt of the earth's axis, changes how directly sunlight falls on one part or another of the earth. This difference in heating different parts of the earth's surface produces seasonal variations in climate. The rotation of the planet on its axis every 24 hours produces the planet's night-and-day cycle—and (to observers on earth) makes it seem as though the sun, planets, stars, and moon are orbiting the earth. The combination of the earth's motion and the moon's own orbit around the earth, once in about 28 days, results in the phases of the moon (on the basis of the changing angle at which we see the sunlit side of the moon). The earth has a variety of climatic patterns, which consist of different conditions of temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, air pressure, and other atmospheric phenomena. These patterns result from an interplay of many factors. The basic energy source is the heating of land, ocean, and air by solar radiation. Transfer of heat energy at the interfaces of the atmosphere with the land and oceans produces layers at different temperatures in both the air and the oceans. These layers rise or sink or mix, giving rise to winds and ocean currents that carry heat energy between warm and cool regions. The earth's rotation curves the flow of winds and ocean currents, which are further deflected by the shape of the land. The cycling of water in and out of the atmosphere plays an important part in determining climatic patterns—evaporating from the surface, rising and cooling, condensing into clouds and then into snow or rain, and falling again to the surface, where it collects in rivers, lakes, and porous layers of rock. There are also large areas on the earth's surface covered by thick ice (such as Antarctica), which interacts with the atmosphere and oceans in affecting worldwide variations in climate.

29. Some misconceptions students have about studying soil and how to avoid them Students of all ages may hold the view that the world was always as it is now, or that any changes that have occurred must have been sudden and comprehensive (Freyberg, 1985). The students in these studies did not, however, have any formal instruction on the topics investigated. Moreover, middle-school students taught by traditional means are not able to construct coherent explanations about the causes of volcanoes and earthquakes (Duschl, Smith, Kesidou, Gitomer, & Schauble, 1992).

30. NH Frameworks Ideas to Consider: Science in the Grade Spans Elementary Grades K-4 Children in grades K-4 observe, describe, and interact with the world around them. At this level effective learning environments provide opportunities for developing awareness of and involvement with the world around them through: Playing with, exploring, collecting, handling, sorting, and classifying objects. Using graphic organizers and other strategies to motivate, organize, and identify the questions children ask about the world. [Test Guess] Using tools (for example: non standard measures, rulers, and magnifiers) to enhance observations, collect, represent and interpret data. Organizing and manipulating data in multiple ways, which may include tools of technology, e.g., calculators, and computers. Communicating (through reading, writing, speaking, listening, movement and viewing) to describe their observations of the world. In summary, the K-4 classroom should provide students opportunities to engage with concrete manipulative activities that will lead children to construct the desired concepts through investigation and analysis of experience. At this level in particular, science should be integrated with other curricular areas (e.g., reading, writing, math, social studies, technology, art, music, or physical education).

31. The following is a list of resources for you to gain some background information.

32. NH Frameworks Earth Space Science K-2

33. Video Resources for Grade 1 Annenberg Media is a wonderful resource for you to use access background information. Not only will you watch a video to gain general background information, you’ll also see how some teachers are teaching science in their classrooms using exemplary practices. The following resources are from their website: http://www.learner.org/resources/series179.html. The videos are free to view via your computer. You just have to set up a login and password. When you get to the webpage, just scroll down the page and you’ll see the different videos. Background informational videos in Earth and Space Science, Life Science, and Physical Science: Essential Science For Teachers Case study on videos: http://www.learner.org/resources/series21.html *Patricia, a first-grade teacher, wants to increase her students' role in their learning. *Ingrid, a first-grade teacher, works with students' ideas while focusing on specific learning goals. (These are just a a few samples of what Annenberg Media offers. There are many more free videos about exemplary teaching of science and other curricular areas.)

34. Processes That Shape the Earth: General Essay Students should learn what causes earthquakes, volcanoes, and floods and how those events shape the surface of the earth. Students, however, may show more interest in the phenomena than in the role the phenomena play in sculpting the earth. So teachers should start with students' immediate interests and work toward the science. Students may find it harder to take seriously the less-obvious, less-dramatic, long-term effects of erosion by wind and water, annual deposits of sediment, the creep of continents, and the rise of mountains. Students' recognition of those effects will depend on an improving sense of long time periods and familiarity with the effect of multiplying tiny fractions by very large numbers (in this case, slow rates by long times). Students can start in the early grades with the ways in which organisms, themselves included, modify their surroundings. As people have used earth resources, they have altered some earth systems. Students can gradually come to recognize how human behavior affects the earth's capacity to sustain life. Questions of environmental policy should be pursued when students become interested in them, usually in the middle grades or later, but care should be taken not to bypass science for advocacy. Critical thinking based on scientific concepts and understanding is the primary goal for science education.

35. . Essential Science for teachers: Life Science: These video lessons are an excellent resource. They include background information, panel discussions, and examples of how the basic principles are taught in the classroom. Life Science link: http://www.learner.org/resources/series179.html Case Studies (there is one from a 3rd grade classroom): http://www.learner.org/resources/series21.html (These are just a a few samples of what Annenberg Media offers. There are many more free videos about exemplary teaching of science and other curricular areas.)

36. What is the philosophy behind the frameworks? How do the new frameworks differ from the old ones? Science should not be approached as a collection of isolated abilities and bits of information, but as a rich fabric of mutually supported ideas and skills that must develop overtime. From primary school to high school what students learn should build on what they learned before, makes sense in terms of what else they are learning, and prepare them for what they will learn next[1].This framework looks at how kids perceive and interact with the world. One of the major changes from the earlier framework can be seen the structure of the new frameworks reflecting the developmental stages of children. To help districts develop curricula for all grade levels, the new Frameworks for Science Literacy includes Grade Span Expectations (GSEs) that break down the content into specific grade spans (K-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8, 9-12). Each span lists proficiencies which indicate what all students should know and be able to do by the end of that grade span. The old framework had six strands: 1) Inquiry; 2) Science, Technology and Society; 3) Life Science; 4) Earth Space Science; 5) Physical Science; and 6) Unifying Themes. Many district curricula had little to no emphasis on strands 1, 2, and 6. In the new edition, Science is divided into three content domains (Earth Space Science, Life Science, and Physical Science) and one Science Process Skills domain. Ideas and objectives which correspond to the 1995 Science Framework strands 1, 2, and 6 have been rolled into each of the new strands. Science Process Skills (SPS) is a new addition to the Frameworks. It reflects the need to make sure that in the early years students develop specific skill sets that will help them be successful in future science experiences. The last section of the skills strand, SPS4, looks at goals for Information and Computer Technology standards in Science. This was included to help districts meet the needs of all students and to meet the new ICT requirements for K-8 and 9-12 digital portfolios. Everything in the old framework could be the subject of the state assessment in science. In the new framework, only specific proficiencies will be part of the NECAP Science Assessment. These “NECAP Science Targets” are clearly marked in bold boxes throughout the GSEs for each grade span. They are also referenced in the Science Process Skills documents as they connect to Inquiry and the Unifying themes of science. The other proficiencies should become part of each districts local science assessment system. [1] Atlas of Science Literacy, American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2001, page 3

37. What is the philosophy behind the frameworks (cont.) Why include Design Technology in Science? Science comprises our knowledge about the natural world and the processes by which that knowledge is acquired, synthesized, evaluated, and applied. Therefore, science education must emphasize hands-on exploration and direct experience with the natural world. Students should be engaged in the observation of these phenomena whenever possible. Science is, above all, an inquiry activity that seeks answers to questions by collecting and analyzing data in an attempt to offer a rational explanation of naturally-occurring events. The knowledge that results from scientific problem solving is most useful when it is organized into concepts, generalizations, and unifying principles, which lead to further investigation of objects and events in the environment. Science and technology are practiced in the context of human culture, and therefore, dynamic interactions occur among science, technology, and society. Each component-- inquiry and problem solving, and how these relate to each other and to society-- is critically important to instruction at every grade level. Technology concerns the human-made world. Technology is much older than science, and has its roots in the very early use of tools by our human-like ancestors. Enabling our children to understand how humans modify the natural world to solve problems and to meet human needs and desires is equally as important as teaching them how to inquire about the natural world. And of course, these two endeavors are related. The reason for including technology along with science in the curriculum is stated in the National Science Education Standards: “Although these are science education standards, the relationship between science and technology is so close that any presentation of science without developing an understanding of technology would portray an inaccurate picture of science.” [1] The National Standards goes on to define technology and its relationship to science as follows: “As used in the Standards, the central distinguishing characteristic between science and technology is a difference in goal: The goal of science is to understand the natural world, and the goal of technology is to make modifications in the world to meet human needs. Technology as design is included in the Standards as parallel to science as inquiry.” [2] In order to broaden our students’ career opportunities and awareness it is also important that they learn distinction between the occupations of scientist and engineer: Scientists propose explanations for questions about the natural world, and engineers propose solutions relating to human problems, needs, and aspirations. Scientists and engineers frequently work together in teams, along with people from other fields, to tackle the essential issues facing our society. [1] National Science Education Standards, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996, page 190. [2] Ibid. page 24.

38. References The following sources were used in the development of this curriculum. Books with online tools: American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2009). Benchmarks On-line. NY, NY: Oxford University Press. Retrieved June 29, 2009 from: http://www.project2061.org/publications/toolWeb.htm American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1990). Science for all Americans. NY, NY: Oxford University Press. http://www.project2061.org/publications/toolWeb.htm Books without online tools: American Association for the Advancement of Science/Project 2061. (2001). Atlas of Science Literacy, AAAS and National Science Teachers Association, Washington, D.C. Driver, R., et. al (1994). Making sense of secondary science: Research into children's ideas.pp.23, NY, NY: Routledge Press.. Hazen, R. and Trefil, J. (1991). Science matters; Achieving scientific literacy. NY. NY: Anchor Books. Keeley, Page (2005) Uncovering Student Ideas in Science 25 Formative Assessment Probes. Vo. 1. Arlington,VA: NSTA Press Keeley, Page. (2005). Science Curriculum Topic Study. Arlington, VA: NSTA Press. Websites: NH Dept. of Education, (2006). NHEON. Retrieved June 29, 2009, from Curriculum Frameworks Website: http://www.ed.state.nh.us/education/doe/organization/curriculum/CurriculumFrameworks/CurriculumFrameworks.htm

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