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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Measurement of Variables' - lesley-love

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Measurement of Variables

- What are the Four Types of Psychological Measures?
- What are the Four Measurement Scales?
- What are Discrete and Continuous Variables?

Types of Measures

- Self-Report
- Tests
- Behavioral Measures
- Physical Measures

Measurement Scales

- The measurement scale tells you what assumptions you can make about a score.
- Many statistics require a certain measurement scale.
- The measurement scale is a property of the data, not a decision made by the researcher.

Nominal Scale

- Numbers classify into groups.
- Math, other than counting, is not meaningful.
- EXAMPLES:
- gender
- hair color

Ordinal Scale

- Numbers are rank orders.
- Most mathematical operations are not meaningful.
- EXAMPLES:
- order of finish in a race
- class rank

Interval Scale

- Numbers represent amounts, with equal intervals between numbers.
- Math, other than ratio comparisons, is meaningful.
- EXAMPLES:
- score on intelligence test
- temperature in Celsius

Ratio Scale

- Numbers represent amounts, with equal intervals and an absolute zero
- absolute zero: zero represents complete absence
- Math, including ratios, is meaningful.
- EXAMPLES:
- number of seconds to finish
- temperature in Kelvin

Discrete vs. ContinuousVariables

- discrete: separate, whole number values
- EXAMPLE: number of pets
- continuous: continuum including fractional values
- EXAMPLE: height

Real Limits

- A score on a continuous variable is really an interval.
- The real limits are half a unit down and half a unit up from the measured score.
- measured score = 65 inches
- real limits: 64.5-65.5 inches

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