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Measurement of Variables. What are the Four Types of Psychological Measures? What are the Four Measurement Scales? What are Discrete and Continuous Variables?. Types of Measures. Self-Report Tests Behavioral Measures Physical Measures. Measurement Scales.

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measurement of variables
Measurement of Variables
  • What are the Four Types of Psychological Measures?
  • What are the Four Measurement Scales?
  • What are Discrete and Continuous Variables?
types of measures
Types of Measures
  • Self-Report
  • Tests
  • Behavioral Measures
  • Physical Measures
measurement scales
Measurement Scales
  • The measurement scale tells you what assumptions you can make about a score.
  • Many statistics require a certain measurement scale.
  • The measurement scale is a property of the data, not a decision made by the researcher.
nominal scale
Nominal Scale
  • Numbers classify into groups.
  • Math, other than counting, is not meaningful.
  • EXAMPLES:
    • gender
    • hair color
ordinal scale
Ordinal Scale
  • Numbers are rank orders.
  • Most mathematical operations are not meaningful.
  • EXAMPLES:
    • order of finish in a race
    • class rank
interval scale
Interval Scale
  • Numbers represent amounts, with equal intervals between numbers.
  • Math, other than ratio comparisons, is meaningful.
  • EXAMPLES:
    • score on intelligence test
    • temperature in Celsius
ratio scale
Ratio Scale
  • Numbers represent amounts, with equal intervals and an absolute zero
  • absolute zero: zero represents complete absence
  • Math, including ratios, is meaningful.
  • EXAMPLES:
    • number of seconds to finish
    • temperature in Kelvin
discrete vs continuous variables
Discrete vs. ContinuousVariables
  • discrete: separate, whole number values
    • EXAMPLE: number of pets
  • continuous: continuum including fractional values
    • EXAMPLE: height
real limits
Real Limits
  • A score on a continuous variable is really an interval.
  • The real limits are half a unit down and half a unit up from the measured score.
    • measured score = 65 inches
    • real limits: 64.5-65.5 inches
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