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Sound and Light Chapter 17. Lesson 1: What is Sound? Lesson 2: What is Light?. Lesson One Vocabulary. Vibration- a back-n-forth movement of matter Volume- the loudness of a sound Pitch- how high or low a sound is Frequency- the number of vibrations per second. Lesson 1: Sound.

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Sound and light chapter 17

Sound and LightChapter 17

Lesson 1: What is Sound?

Lesson 2: What is Light?


Lesson one vocabulary
Lesson One Vocabulary

  • Vibration- a back-n-forth movement of matter

  • Volume- the loudness of a sound

  • Pitch- how high or low a sound is

  • Frequency- the number of vibrations per second


Lesson 1 sound
Lesson 1: Sound

  • Sound is energy that travels through the air.

  • A vibration is a back and forth movement of matter.

  • The vibrations make the air vibrate and this is what you hear.


Lesson 1 sound1

The loudness of a sound is called volume.

Volume is measured in decibels (dB).

A high decibel sound is loud and has a lot of energy.

Lesson 1: Sound


Lesson 1 sound2

Sound waves move through the air as waves.

Some sounds are high while other sounds are low.

A sound’s pitch is how high or low the sound is.

The number of vibrations in a second is the frequency of a sound.

Frequency and pitch are related.

A sound with high frequency has a high pitch and a low pitch has a low frequency.

Lesson 1: Sound


Lesson 1 sound3
Lesson 1: Sound

  • Sound waves move in all directions from an object.

  • A sound that hits a

    hard surface bounces

    back and it called an

    echo.

  • You can often hear

    echoes in caves

    and canyons.


Lesson 1 sound4
Lesson 1: Sound

  • Sound waves move like dominoes; when you push one, the next one falls down.

  • Sound waves move this same way.

  • They travel through the air because particles in the air give energy to the ones nearby.

  • Sound can travel a long distance

    but the particles stay in the

    same place.


Lesson 1 sound5

Any kind of matter can vibrate and carry sound.

Matter that carries sound is called a medium.

Sound waves need a medium to travel.

The speed of sound depends on the medium.

Sound travels fastest in solids and slowest in gases.

Sound also moves faster when it’s warm that when it’s cold.

Lesson 1: Sound


Lesson 1 sound6

Animals can hear sounds that humans cannot hear.

Dogs can hear high pitched sounds.

Bats have excellent hearing and when they fly they produce sound which bounces off objects.

The bat can hear its echoes and this allows the bat to fly in the dark. Cool!

Lesson 1: Sound


Lesson two vocabulary
Lesson Two Vocabulary

  • Reflection- the bouncing of heat or light off an object

  • Opaque- Not allowing light to pass through

  • Translucent- allowing only some light to pass through

  • Transparent- A material that allows light through

  • Refraction- the bending of light as it moves from one material to another

  • Concave lens- a lens that is thicker at the edges than it is a the center

  • Convex lens- a lens that is thicker at the center than at the edges


Lesson 2 light
Lesson 2: Light

  • Light is a form of energy that travels in waves.

  • Unlike sound, light does not need a medium to travel.

  • Light is part of the electromagnetic spectrum and the part that

    we can see is called

    visible light.

  • The waves that make up

    the spectrum have different

    frequencies.


Lesson 2 light1

Light waves are different from sound waves.

Light waves move like ocean waves because they move up and down.

Light waves can travel through matter or through empty space.

Light moves thousands of times faster than sound.

It only takes 8 minutes for light travel from the sun to Earth.

Lesson 2: Light


Lesson 2 light2

You can feel energy in sunlight as heat.

You can also feel the heat from a light bulb.

The sun and the light bulb both send out light in all directions.

But a laser gives off light in a narrow beam which is very powerful because the waves are close together.

Lesson 2: Light


Lesson 2 light3
Lesson 2: Light

  • When light hits an object, the objects affects the path of the light.

  • The object can absorb the light, make it bounce back, or let it pass through.


Lesson 2 light4

Reflection occurs when light bounces off a surface.

In most cases, light spreads out when it is reflected.

But a smooth surface does not spread out and this is why you can see yourself in a mirror.

Lesson 2: Light


Lesson 2 light5

Most objects absorb some light and reflect the rest.

Opaque materials do not let any light pass through them.

You cannot see through opaque objects.

Most objects around you are opaque, like you shoes, your desk, and a book.

Lesson 2: Light


Lesson 2 light6

Transparent materials let light pass through. Most kinds of glass are transparent.

Translucent materials only let some light pass through.

Stain glass windows are translucent.

The difference between transparent and translucent is how they spread out light.

Translucent materials spread more light.

Lesson 2: Light


Lesson 2 light7

When light moves from one material to another, it bends.

This bending is called refraction.

Refraction changes the angle at which you see things.

Have you ever looked at a straw in a glass of water?

It seems to bend where the straw enters the water. This is refraction.

Lesson 2: Light


Lesson 2 light8

A convex lens is thicker at the center that it is at the edges.

It bends light waves to bring them together.

A convex lens makes images bigger.

Lesson 2: Light


Lesson 2 light9
Lesson 2: Light

  • A concave lens is thicker at the edges.

  • This lens spreads light waves apart.

  • This lens makes an object look smaller.


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