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Apply Time Management Techniques Project Time Processes – Part 2 C ertificate IV in Project Management 17871 Qualification Code BSB41507 Unit Code BSBPMG402A. Project Time Management Processes. PMBOK Project Time Management Processes - 6.1 Define Activities 6.2 Sequence Activities

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Apply TimeManagement TechniquesProject Time Processes – Part 2Certificate IV in Project Management 17871Qualification Code BSB41507Unit Code BSBPMG402A

project time management processes
Project Time Management Processes

PMBOK Project Time Management Processes -

6.1 Define Activities

6.2 Sequence Activities

6.3 Estimate Activity Resources

6.4 Estimate Activity Duration

6.5 Develop Schedule

6.6 Control Schedule

Related processes from Project Integration Management –

4.1 Develop Project Charter

4.2 Develop Project Management Plan

PMBOK 4th Edition

project time processes part 2
Project Time Processes – Part 2
  • PMBOK Project Time Management Processes -
      • 6.1 Define Activities
      • 6.2 Sequence Activities
      • 6.3 Estimate Activity Resources
      • 6.4 Estimate Activity Duration
      • 6.5 Develop Schedule
      • 6.6 Control Schedule
  • Related processes from Project Integration Management –
      • 4.1 Develop Project Charter
      • 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan
learning objectives part 2
Learning Objectives – Part 2

Understand of the processes required to manage Project Time

Acquire the skills and knowledge required to assist with project scheduling activities

Explain the project scheduling process and several tools and techniques used to estimate activity resourcing and duration

Understand the importance of defining the Critical Path for a project

Understand how to control the project schedule to ensure projects can stay on track

reading time processes part 1
Reading – Time Processes Part 1
  • Please take some time to review the PMBOK Chapters 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6
  • This could take 30 to 45 minutes
6 3 estimate activity resources

Monitor

Initiation

Planning

Execution

Close

Control

6.3 Estimate Activity Resources
  • The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment or supplied required to perform each activity
  • Closely related to the Estimate Costs process (7.1) and normally done simultaneously
  • Sometimes the resources are captured in project management software, most particularly human resources
  • Supplementary registers are often maintained for non human resources
  • Occurs during the Planning Phase

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

6 3 estimate activity resources1
6.3 Estimate Activity Resources

Inputs to Estimate Activity Resources

Activity list and attributes

Resource Calendars

Resource availability and skills

Staffing policies and procedures

Procurement policies and procedures

Tools and techniques to Estimate Activity Resources

Project

Management

Software

Alternatives

Analysis

Expert

Judgement

Published

Estimating

Data

Bottom-Up

Estimating

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

6 3 estimate activity resources2
6.3 Estimate Activity Resources

Published Estimating Data

Many industries (eg Construction) have standard production rates and unit costs for common activities

Bottom-Up Estimating

Decomposing activities into more detail to assist with estimation

Project Management Software

Can assist with planning, organising and managing resources

Different levels of sophistication

Monitor

Initiation

Planning

Execution

Close

Control

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

6 3 estimate activity resources3
6.3 Estimate Activity Resources

Outputs of this process include –

Activity Resource Requirements

Captured in project management software or supplementary registers

Resource Breakdown Structure

Hierarchical chart of resources required

Commonly depicted as the project organisation structure for human resources

Revised Activity List and Attributes

Revised Resource Calendar

Resources marked as unavailable

Monitor

Initiation

Planning

Execution

Close

Control

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

6 4 estimate activity duration

Monitor

Initiation

Planning

Execution

Close

Control

6.4 Estimate Activity Duration
  • The process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with the assigned or estimated resources
  • Previous experience in the type of project and activities being estimated greatly helps with the accuracy of duration estimates
  • Duration is a function of work effort and resources
  • Most project management software can perform this function
  • Occurs during the Planning Phase

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

6 4 estimate activity duration1
6.4 Estimate Activity Duration

Inputs to Estimate Activity Duration

Activity list and attributes

Activity Resource requirements and estimates

Resource Calendars

Project Scope Statement

Productivity metrics and estimating data

Tools and techniques to Estimate Activity Duration

Reserve

Analysis

Analogous

Estimating

Expert

Judgement

Parametric

Estimating

Three-Point

Estimating

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

6 4 estimate activity duration2
6.4 Estimate Activity Duration

Analogous Estimating

Develops duration estimates based on previous projects with similar size, risk and complexity

Relies heavily of expert judgement and previous experience

Less costly and less time consuming than other methods

Least accurate

Most common form of duration estimating

Parametric Estimating

Duration is quantified by multiplying the quantity of work by the labour hours required

Relies on published estimating data

Common in Construction

Monitor

Initiation

Planning

Execution

Close

Control

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

6 4 estimate activity duration3
6.4 Estimate Activity Duration

Three-Point Estimates - PERT

Calculates the Expected activity duration based on the weighted average of the Most Likely, Optimistic and Pessimistic estimates

Often more accurate than other methods and quantified range of uncertainty

Reserve Analysis

Inclusion of contingency

Can be calculated for each activity

Can be calculated for entire project

Often a percentage based on risk or complexity

Monitor

Initiation

Planning

Execution

Close

Control

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

6 4 estimate activity duration4
6.4 Estimate Activity Duration

The major output of this process

Activity Duration Estimates

Draft or High Level Project Duration Estimate

Often include some form of range of possible results

Most common form of range is plus or minus - eg

2 weeks +/- 2 days – the activity could take between 8 and 12 days

3 weeks +/- 30% - the activity could take between 2 weeks and 4 weeks

Monitor

Initiation

Planning

Execution

Close

Control

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

6 5 develop schedule

Monitor

Initiation

Planning

Execution

Close

Control

6.5 Develop Schedule
  • The process of analysing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements and schedule constraints to create the project schedule
  • All this data is entered into a project scheduling tool which generates a schedule with planned dates for completing project activities
  • An iterative process with several cycles of refinement
  • Baseline Schedule developed in Planning Phase
  • Simultaneous with 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 & 6.4

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

6 5 develop schedule1
6.5 Develop Schedule

Inputs to Develop Schedule

Activity list and attributes

Project Schedule Network Diagrams – relationships and dependencies

Activity Resource Requirements

Resource Calendars

Activity Duration Estimates

Project Scope Statement

Project Scheduling Tool

Scheduling Methodology and Standards

Overall Project Calendar and Priorities

Monitor

Initiation

Planning

Execution

Close

Control

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

6 5 develop schedule2
6.5 Develop Schedule

Tools and techniques to Develop Schedule

Monitor

Initiation

Planning

Execution

Close

Control

What-if

Scenario

Analysis

Scheduling

Tool

Schedule

Network

Analysis

Critical Path

Method

Schedule

Compression

Critical Chain

Method

Applying

Leads &

Lags

Resource

Levelling

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

critical path critical chain
Critical Path Method

Was developed in the 1950s by the Dupont Corporation

The Critical Path Method, abbreviated CPM, or Critical Path Analysis, is a mathematically based algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities.

It takes the activities in the Work Breakdown Structure, the durations and the interdependencies, and calculates the longest path through the project.

It is the longest total duration of all the activities required to complete a project

Advanced techniques and calculations (such as early start and early finish dates, and late start and late finish dates) are now carried out using project scheduling tools

Does a forward and backward pass through the schedule with no regard for resource limitations

Critical Path & Critical Chain

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

critical path and critical chain
Critical Chain Method

Undertakes the same form of analysis and calculations, but takes into consideration the resource availability and constraints

Takes the Critical Path and resource availability to produce a resource constrained critical path OR Critical Chain

It is the longest total duration of all the activities required to complete a project, considering resource availability and limitations

Often done simultaneously with Critical Path

Critical Path and Critical Chain

Critical Chain

Resource Constrained Critical Path

=

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

schedule compression
Schedule Compression

Shortens the project schedule without changing project scope

1. Crashing

  • Only works for activities where additional resources will

shorten duration

  • Does not always produce a viable schedule
  • Always results in increased cost
  • Sometimes results in increase risk

increased

Cost

Crashing

leads to

increased

Risk

schedule compression1
Schedule Compression

Shortens the project schedule without changing project scope

2. Fast Tracking

  • Phases or activities normally performed sequentially are performed in parallel
  • Only works if activities can be overlapped to shorten duration
  • May result in rework and increased risk
  • Can result in decreased cost

decreased

Cost

increased

Rework

Fast Tracking

leads to

increased

Risk

6 5 develop schedule3
6.5 Develop Schedule

The major outputs of this process

Project Schedule

Milestone charts

Bar chart – GANTT charts

Project Schedule Network Diagrams – PERT Charts

Schedule Baseline

Revised Activity Resource Requirements

Revised Activity Attributes

Project Calendar

Revised Risk register

Monitor

Initiation

Planning

Execution

Close

Control

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

what is a gantt chart
What is a GANTT chart?

Gantt charts are named after their creator, an American engineer Henry Laurence Gantt, who created the first bar charts in the early 1910’s.

It converts the Work Breakdown Structure into a graphical display of a project schedule

It displays the durations of all scheduled activities including the interdependencies

Often also includes information on project milestones and resource allocation to activities

It has become one of the most widespread project management tools due to the prevalence of MS project

what is a pert chart
What is a PERT chart?

PERT stands for Programme Evaluation and Review Technique

It was created by a Naval scientist, Frederick Taylor, in the 1950’s

It is a project management technique for determining how much time a project needs before it can be completed.

Each activity is assigned a best, worst and most probably completion time estimate.

These estimates are then used to determine the average completion time and are represented graphically in a network diagram

6 6 control schedule

Monitor

Initiation

Planning

Execution

Close

Control

6.6 Control Schedule
  • The process of monitoring the status of the project in order to update progress and manage any changes to the baseline project schedule
  • Includes –
      • Determining the current status of the project schedule
      • Influencing the factors that create the schedule changes
      • Determining that the project schedule has changed
      • Managing changes as they occur
  • Occurs during Monitoring & Controlling
  • Is part of Perform Integrated Change

Control (4.5)

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

6 6 control schedule1
6.6 Control Schedule

Inputs to Control Schedule

Project Management Plan

Project Schedule

Performance data

Project Reporting standards

Tools and techniques to Control Schedule

Applying

Leads &

Lags

Resource

Levelling

Scheduling

Tool

Performance

Reviews

Project

Management

Software

What-if

Scenario

Analysis

Variance

Analysis

Schedule

Compression

Status

Reports

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

6 6 control schedule2
6.6 Control Schedule

The major outputs of this process

Work Performance measurement

Costs and impacts of variance and corrective actions

Lesson learned

Change Requests

Project Management Plan updates

Schedule baseline

Schedule management plan

Cost baseline

Project Schedule updates

Status Reports

Monitor

Initiation

Planning

Execution

Close

Control

Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition

project scheduling forum
Project Scheduling Forum

Take some time to reflect on the different tools and techniques that can be used to develop the project schedule.

Reflect on how schedules are developed on your projects and those within your organisations.

See if you can find some policies, standards or templates to assist with project scheduling. Look both inside your organisation and do some online research.

Then go to the Forum on Project Scheduling and discuss the tools and techniques that you have seen in use. Get involved in the debate about which ones are better than others and provide your rationale.

Practice

Comment

Research

project scheduling activity
Project Scheduling Activity

Carefully read the Project Scheduling activity for the Dinner Party case study

Prepare a detailed project schedule using project scheduling software (preferably MS Project).

Ensure that you have linked all your activities using the different types of relationships and then calculate the critical path.

Then go to Assignments – Time Exercise and upload your solution. Your facilitator will provide feedback in a few days and your results will contribute to your participation mark.

Learn

Improve

Practice

next steps
Next Steps

Please proceed to Tests & Tasks and take

the Project Time Quiz.

Be sure that you have completed the

Project Time Exercises and participated in the Forums.

Best of Luck!

These are all due at the end of Week 6 in the Course Delivery Schedule

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