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Apply Time Management Techniques Project Time Processes – Part 2 C ertificate IV in Project Management 17871 Qualification Code BSB41507 Unit Code BSBPMG402A. Project Time Management Processes. PMBOK Project Time Management Processes - 6.1 Define Activities 6.2 Sequence Activities

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Project time management processes

Apply TimeManagement TechniquesProject Time Processes – Part 2Certificate IV in Project Management 17871Qualification Code BSB41507Unit Code BSBPMG402A


Project time management processes

Project Time Management Processes

PMBOK Project Time Management Processes -

6.1 Define Activities

6.2 Sequence Activities

6.3 Estimate Activity Resources

6.4 Estimate Activity Duration

6.5 Develop Schedule

6.6 Control Schedule

Related processes from Project Integration Management –

4.1 Develop Project Charter

4.2 Develop Project Management Plan

PMBOK 4th Edition


Project time processes part 2

Project Time Processes – Part 2

  • PMBOK Project Time Management Processes -

    • 6.1 Define Activities

    • 6.2 Sequence Activities

    • 6.3 Estimate Activity Resources

    • 6.4 Estimate Activity Duration

    • 6.5 Develop Schedule

    • 6.6 Control Schedule

  • Related processes from Project Integration Management –

    • 4.1 Develop Project Charter

    • 4.2 Develop Project Management Plan


  • Learning objectives part 2

    Learning Objectives – Part 2

    Understand of the processes required to manage Project Time

    Acquire the skills and knowledge required to assist with project scheduling activities

    Explain the project scheduling process and several tools and techniques used to estimate activity resourcing and duration

    Understand the importance of defining the Critical Path for a project

    Understand how to control the project schedule to ensure projects can stay on track


    Reading time processes part 1

    Reading – Time Processes Part 1

    • Please take some time to review the PMBOK Chapters 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6

    • This could take 30 to 45 minutes


    6 3 estimate activity resources

    Monitor

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Close

    Control

    6.3 Estimate Activity Resources

    • The process of estimating the type and quantities of material, people, equipment or supplied required to perform each activity

    • Closely related to the Estimate Costs process (7.1) and normally done simultaneously

    • Sometimes the resources are captured in project management software, most particularly human resources

    • Supplementary registers are often maintained for non human resources

    • Occurs during the Planning Phase

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    6 3 estimate activity resources1

    6.3 Estimate Activity Resources

    Inputs to Estimate Activity Resources

    Activity list and attributes

    Resource Calendars

    Resource availability and skills

    Staffing policies and procedures

    Procurement policies and procedures

    Tools and techniques to Estimate Activity Resources

    Project

    Management

    Software

    Alternatives

    Analysis

    Expert

    Judgement

    Published

    Estimating

    Data

    Bottom-Up

    Estimating

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    6 3 estimate activity resources2

    6.3 Estimate Activity Resources

    Published Estimating Data

    Many industries (eg Construction) have standard production rates and unit costs for common activities

    Bottom-Up Estimating

    Decomposing activities into more detail to assist with estimation

    Project Management Software

    Can assist with planning, organising and managing resources

    Different levels of sophistication

    Monitor

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Close

    Control

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    6 3 estimate activity resources3

    6.3 Estimate Activity Resources

    Outputs of this process include –

    Activity Resource Requirements

    Captured in project management software or supplementary registers

    Resource Breakdown Structure

    Hierarchical chart of resources required

    Commonly depicted as the project organisation structure for human resources

    Revised Activity List and Attributes

    Revised Resource Calendar

    Resources marked as unavailable

    Monitor

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Close

    Control

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    6 4 estimate activity duration

    Monitor

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Close

    Control

    6.4 Estimate Activity Duration

    • The process of approximating the number of work periods needed to complete individual activities with the assigned or estimated resources

    • Previous experience in the type of project and activities being estimated greatly helps with the accuracy of duration estimates

    • Duration is a function of work effort and resources

    • Most project management software can perform this function

    • Occurs during the Planning Phase

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    6 4 estimate activity duration1

    6.4 Estimate Activity Duration

    Inputs to Estimate Activity Duration

    Activity list and attributes

    Activity Resource requirements and estimates

    Resource Calendars

    Project Scope Statement

    Productivity metrics and estimating data

    Tools and techniques to Estimate Activity Duration

    Reserve

    Analysis

    Analogous

    Estimating

    Expert

    Judgement

    Parametric

    Estimating

    Three-Point

    Estimating

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    6 4 estimate activity duration2

    6.4 Estimate Activity Duration

    Analogous Estimating

    Develops duration estimates based on previous projects with similar size, risk and complexity

    Relies heavily of expert judgement and previous experience

    Less costly and less time consuming than other methods

    Least accurate

    Most common form of duration estimating

    Parametric Estimating

    Duration is quantified by multiplying the quantity of work by the labour hours required

    Relies on published estimating data

    Common in Construction

    Monitor

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Close

    Control

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    6 4 estimate activity duration3

    6.4 Estimate Activity Duration

    Three-Point Estimates - PERT

    Calculates the Expected activity duration based on the weighted average of the Most Likely, Optimistic and Pessimistic estimates

    Often more accurate than other methods and quantified range of uncertainty

    Reserve Analysis

    Inclusion of contingency

    Can be calculated for each activity

    Can be calculated for entire project

    Often a percentage based on risk or complexity

    Monitor

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Close

    Control

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    6 4 estimate activity duration4

    6.4 Estimate Activity Duration

    The major output of this process

    Activity Duration Estimates

    Draft or High Level Project Duration Estimate

    Often include some form of range of possible results

    Most common form of range is plus or minus - eg

    2 weeks +/- 2 days – the activity could take between 8 and 12 days

    3 weeks +/- 30% - the activity could take between 2 weeks and 4 weeks

    Monitor

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Close

    Control

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    6 5 develop schedule

    Monitor

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Close

    Control

    6.5 Develop Schedule

    • The process of analysing activity sequences, durations, resource requirements and schedule constraints to create the project schedule

    • All this data is entered into a project scheduling tool which generates a schedule with planned dates for completing project activities

    • An iterative process with several cycles of refinement

    • Baseline Schedule developed in Planning Phase

    • Simultaneous with 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 & 6.4

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    6 5 develop schedule1

    6.5 Develop Schedule

    Inputs to Develop Schedule

    Activity list and attributes

    Project Schedule Network Diagrams – relationships and dependencies

    Activity Resource Requirements

    Resource Calendars

    Activity Duration Estimates

    Project Scope Statement

    Project Scheduling Tool

    Scheduling Methodology and Standards

    Overall Project Calendar and Priorities

    Monitor

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Close

    Control

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    6 5 develop schedule2

    6.5 Develop Schedule

    Tools and techniques to Develop Schedule

    Monitor

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Close

    Control

    What-if

    Scenario

    Analysis

    Scheduling

    Tool

    Schedule

    Network

    Analysis

    Critical Path

    Method

    Schedule

    Compression

    Critical Chain

    Method

    Applying

    Leads &

    Lags

    Resource

    Levelling

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    Critical path critical chain

    Critical Path Method

    Was developed in the 1950s by the Dupont Corporation

    The Critical Path Method, abbreviated CPM, or Critical Path Analysis, is a mathematically based algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities.

    It takes the activities in the Work Breakdown Structure, the durations and the interdependencies, and calculates the longest path through the project.

    It is the longest total duration of all the activities required to complete a project

    Advanced techniques and calculations (such as early start and early finish dates, and late start and late finish dates) are now carried out using project scheduling tools

    Does a forward and backward pass through the schedule with no regard for resource limitations

    Critical Path & Critical Chain

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    Critical path and critical chain

    Critical Chain Method

    Undertakes the same form of analysis and calculations, but takes into consideration the resource availability and constraints

    Takes the Critical Path and resource availability to produce a resource constrained critical path OR Critical Chain

    It is the longest total duration of all the activities required to complete a project, considering resource availability and limitations

    Often done simultaneously with Critical Path

    Critical Path and Critical Chain

    Critical Chain

    Resource Constrained Critical Path

    =

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    Schedule compression

    Schedule Compression

    Shortens the project schedule without changing project scope

    1. Crashing

    • Only works for activities where additional resources will

      shorten duration

    • Does not always produce a viable schedule

    • Always results in increased cost

    • Sometimes results in increase risk

    increased

    Cost

    Crashing

    leads to

    increased

    Risk


    Schedule compression1

    Schedule Compression

    Shortens the project schedule without changing project scope

    2. Fast Tracking

    • Phases or activities normally performed sequentially are performed in parallel

    • Only works if activities can be overlapped to shorten duration

    • May result in rework and increased risk

    • Can result in decreased cost

    decreased

    Cost

    increased

    Rework

    Fast Tracking

    leads to

    increased

    Risk


    6 5 develop schedule3

    6.5 Develop Schedule

    The major outputs of this process

    Project Schedule

    Milestone charts

    Bar chart – GANTT charts

    Project Schedule Network Diagrams – PERT Charts

    Schedule Baseline

    Revised Activity Resource Requirements

    Revised Activity Attributes

    Project Calendar

    Revised Risk register

    Monitor

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Close

    Control

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    What is a gantt chart

    What is a GANTT chart?

    Gantt charts are named after their creator, an American engineer Henry Laurence Gantt, who created the first bar charts in the early 1910’s.

    It converts the Work Breakdown Structure into a graphical display of a project schedule

    It displays the durations of all scheduled activities including the interdependencies

    Often also includes information on project milestones and resource allocation to activities

    It has become one of the most widespread project management tools due to the prevalence of MS project


    Sample gantt charts

    Sample GANTT Charts


    What is a pert chart

    What is a PERT chart?

    PERT stands for Programme Evaluation and Review Technique

    It was created by a Naval scientist, Frederick Taylor, in the 1950’s

    It is a project management technique for determining how much time a project needs before it can be completed.

    Each activity is assigned a best, worst and most probably completion time estimate.

    These estimates are then used to determine the average completion time and are represented graphically in a network diagram


    Sample pert charts

    Sample PERT Charts


    6 6 control schedule

    Monitor

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Close

    Control

    6.6 Control Schedule

    • The process of monitoring the status of the project in order to update progress and manage any changes to the baseline project schedule

    • Includes –

      • Determining the current status of the project schedule

      • Influencing the factors that create the schedule changes

      • Determining that the project schedule has changed

      • Managing changes as they occur

  • Occurs during Monitoring & Controlling

  • Is part of Perform Integrated Change

    Control (4.5)

  • Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    6 6 control schedule1

    6.6 Control Schedule

    Inputs to Control Schedule

    Project Management Plan

    Project Schedule

    Performance data

    Project Reporting standards

    Tools and techniques to Control Schedule

    Applying

    Leads &

    Lags

    Resource

    Levelling

    Scheduling

    Tool

    Performance

    Reviews

    Project

    Management

    Software

    What-if

    Scenario

    Analysis

    Variance

    Analysis

    Schedule

    Compression

    Status

    Reports

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    6 6 control schedule2

    6.6 Control Schedule

    The major outputs of this process

    Work Performance measurement

    Costs and impacts of variance and corrective actions

    Lesson learned

    Change Requests

    Project Management Plan updates

    Schedule baseline

    Schedule management plan

    Cost baseline

    Project Schedule updates

    Status Reports

    Monitor

    Initiation

    Planning

    Execution

    Close

    Control

    Adapted from PMBOK 4th Edition


    Project scheduling forum

    Project Scheduling Forum

    Take some time to reflect on the different tools and techniques that can be used to develop the project schedule.

    Reflect on how schedules are developed on your projects and those within your organisations.

    See if you can find some policies, standards or templates to assist with project scheduling. Look both inside your organisation and do some online research.

    Then go to the Forum on Project Scheduling and discuss the tools and techniques that you have seen in use. Get involved in the debate about which ones are better than others and provide your rationale.

    Practice

    Comment

    Research


    Project scheduling activity

    Project Scheduling Activity

    Carefully read the Project Scheduling activity for the Dinner Party case study

    Prepare a detailed project schedule using project scheduling software (preferably MS Project).

    Ensure that you have linked all your activities using the different types of relationships and then calculate the critical path.

    Then go to Assignments – Time Exercise and upload your solution. Your facilitator will provide feedback in a few days and your results will contribute to your participation mark.

    Learn

    Improve

    Practice


    Next steps

    Next Steps

    Please proceed to Tests & Tasks and take

    the Project Time Quiz.

    Be sure that you have completed the

    Project Time Exercises and participated in the Forums.

    Best of Luck!

    These are all due at the end of Week 6 in the Course Delivery Schedule


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