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the theoretical understanding of Type Ia Supernovae. Daniel Kasen. SN cosmology. “super-nova”. Supernova Discovery History Asiago Catalog (all supernova types). Proposed. Supernova Factory Lick observatory SN search CfA SN group Carnegie SN project ESSENCE Supernova Legacy Survey.

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The theoretical understanding of type ia supernovae
the theoretical understanding of Type Ia Supernovae

Daniel Kasen


Supernova discovery history asiago catalog all supernova types

SN cosmology

“super-nova”

Supernova Discovery HistoryAsiago Catalog (all supernova types)


Supernova discovery future rough predictions and promises

Proposed

Supernova Factory

Lick observatory SN search

CfA SN group

Carnegie SN project

ESSENCE

Supernova Legacy Survey

PanStarrs

Dark Energy Survey

JDEM

Large Synoptic Survey

Telescope (LSST)

Supernova Discovery FutureRough predictions and promises…

Dark Energy Measurements

Systematic error, not statistical error,

is the issue (e.g., luminosity evolution)

Aim for Type Ia SNe as reliable standard candles to a few %


Sn ia progenitors accreting white dwarf near the chandrasekhar limit
SN Ia ProgenitorsAccreting white dwarf near the Chandrasekhar limit

Accretion rate:

10-7 Msun / year


White dwarf ignition kuhlen woosley and glaitzmeier 2006
White Dwarf IgnitionKuhlen, Woosley, and Glaitzmeier (2006)


3d deflagration model subsonic turbulent flame burning

t = 0.0 sec

t = 0.5 sec

t = 1.0 sec

t = 1.5 sec

3D Deflagration ModelSubsonic turbulent flame burning

Roepke et al. (2005)


C/O

Si/S/Ca

56Ni

Fe

C/O

boom


Type ia supernova light curves powered by the beta decay 56 ni 56 co 56 fe
Type Ia Supernova Light Curvespowered by the beta decay: 56Ni 56Co 56Fe


Type ia supernova spectrum
Type Ia Supernova Spectrum

20 days after explosion


Spectroscopic homogeneity and diversity monitoring silicon expansion velocities
Spectroscopic Homogeneity and Diversitymonitoring silicon expansion velocities

from Leonard et al, ApJ 2006


Type ia width luminosity relation brighter supernovae have broader light curves
Type Ia Width-Luminosity Relationbrighter supernovae have broader light curves


Supernova ejecta opacity blending of millions of line transitions

FeII bound-bound

Supernova Ejecta Opacityblending of millions of line transitions

FeIII bound-bound


DOE: Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC)

The “Computational Astrophysics Consortium” (CAC)

Stan Woosley (PI)

UC Santa Cruz, UC Berkeley, Stanford, Arizona, Stony Brook, JHU,

LANL, LLNL, LBNL

Models

Presupernova Evolution

(~100-109 years)

accreting, convective white dwarf

Type Ia

supernova

theoretical

simulation

challenge

ignition

Explosion

(~1-100 secs)

turbulent nuclear combustion / hydrodynamics

free expansion

Light Curves / Spectra

(~100 days)

radioactive decay / radiative transfer

Observations


3 dimensional time dependent monte carlo radiative transfer
3-dimensional Time-Dependent (SciDAC) Monte Carlo Radiative Transfer

SEDONA Code

Expanding atmosphere

Realistic opacities

Three-dimensional

Time-dependent

Multi-wavelength

Includes spectropolarization

Includes radioactive decay

and gamma-ray transfer

Iterative solution for

thermal equilibrium

Kasen et al 2006 ApJ


Large scale computing
Large Scale Computing (SciDAC)

Incite award, Oak Ridge Lab: 4 million hours/year

Atlas “grand challenge” LLNL: 4 million hours/year

NERSC award, LBL: 3 million hours/year

Jacquard, NERSC


C/O (SciDAC)

Si/S/Ca

56Ni

Fe

Grid of Type Ia Supernova Models

w/ Stan Woosley

Sergei Blinikov

Elena Sorokina

130 one-dimensional

Chandrasekhar mass

models with

varied composition

Parameters

MFe

MNi

MSi

“mixing”

MFe +MNi +MSi + Mco = MCH


Broadband synthetic light curves model compared to observations of sn 2001el
Broadband Synthetic Light Curves (SciDAC) Model Compared to observations of SN 2001el

Parameters

MFe = 0.1 Msun

MNi = 0.6 Msun

MSi = 0.4 Msun

Kasen, ApJ 2006

Kasen (2006) ApJ


Time evolution of spectrum recession of photosphere reveals deeper layers

Day 15 after explosion (SciDAC)

Time Evolution of SpectrumRecession of photosphere reveals deeper layers

Day 35 after explosion

C/O

Si/S/Ca

Model

SN1994D

56Ni

Fe


Width luminosity relationship kasen and woosley apj 2007
Width-Luminosity Relationship (SciDAC) Kasen and Woosley, ApJ, 2007

Vary 56Ni production

MNi = 0.35 to 0.70 Msun


The width luminosity relationship kasen and woosley apj 2007
The Width-Luminosity Relationship (SciDAC) Kasen and Woosley, ApJ, 2007

Brighter models are hotter and

more ionized and have different

opacity behavior

Vary 56Ni production


The width luminosity relationship kasen and woosley apj 20071
The Width-Luminosity Relationship (SciDAC) Kasen and Woosley, ApJ, 2007

Vary silicon production

(explosion energy)

Vary 56Ni production


Multi dimensional models roepke et al 2005
Multi-Dimensional Models (SciDAC) Roepke et al (2005)


2D Deflagration Model (SciDAC)

Roepke, Kasen, Woosley

MNi = 0.2 Msun

EK = 0.3 x 1051 ergs


Deflagration to detonation khokhlov 1991 hoeflich 1994 gamezo et al 2005
Deflagration (SciDAC) ToDetonationKhokhlov (1991)Hoeflich (1994)Gamezo et al (2005)

Gamezo et al.

But how to detonate?


2D Delayed Detonation (SciDAC)

Roepke, Kasen, Woosley

Earlier Detonation (higher densities)

gives more 56Ni production

MNi = 0.5 Msun

EK = 1.2 x 1051 ergs


Off-Center Ignition (SciDAC)

University of Chicago

FLASH Center


Detonation from failed deflagration plewa apj 2007
Detonation From Failed Deflagration (SciDAC) Plewa, ApJ (2007)

Is the transition robust in

3-dimensional calculations?


Off center explosion plewa 2007 kasen and plewa 2007
Off-center Explosion (SciDAC) Plewa (2007) Kasen and Plewa (2007)


Asymmetry and sn ia diversity maximum light spectrum
Asymmetry and SN Ia Diversity (SciDAC) Maximum Light Spectrum


Asymmetry and sn ia diversity b band light curve and the phillips relation
Asymmetry and SN Ia Diversity (SciDAC) B-band Light Curve and the Phillips Relation


The theoretical understanding of type ia supernovae1
The Theoretical Understanding of Type Ia Supernovae (SciDAC)

Pressing Questions

How and where does ignition happen?

How might the deflagration transition into a

detonation?

Can we reproduce the observed spectra

and light curves from first principles?

How do the light curves depend upon

progenitor environment?


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