Linear e e colliders physics and projects
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Linear e+e- Colliders: Physics and Projects. Contents  Recent LC history  The ILC: a TeV collider  CLIC: a multi-TeV collider. De Roeck CERN China-CERN Workshop on Coorperation in High Energy Physics. Linear e+e- Colliders.

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Linear e e colliders physics and projects

Linear e+e- Colliders: Physics and Projects

Contents

 Recent LC history

 The ILC: a TeV collider

 CLIC: a multi-TeV collider

De Roeck

CERN

China-CERN Workshop on Coorperation in High Energy Physics

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Linear e e colliders

Linear e+e- Colliders

Since end of 2001 there seems to be a worldwide consensus

(ECFA/HEPAP/Snowmass 2001…)

The machine which will complement and extend the LHC

best, and is closest to be realized, is a Linear e+e- Collider

with a collision energy of at least 500 GeV

PROJECTS:

 TeV Colliders (cms energy up to 1 TeV)  Technology ~ready

August’04 ITRP: NLC/GLC/TESLA ILC superconducting cavities

 Multi-TeV Collider (cms energies in multi-TeV range)  advanced R&D

CLIC (CERN + collaborators)  Two Beam Acceleration

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Linear e e colliders physics and projects

The Physics case for TeV-LC

A collider with energy up to 1 TeV, such as the ILC

1 - Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

decipher mechanism for EWSB regardless of what it may be

e.g. Higgs precision physics (mass, couplings, self-coupling)

2 - Hierarchy Problem (instability of SM against different scales)

direct observations and virtual effects

3 – Dark Matter

precision on supersymmetry DM matching future astrophysical

experiments

4 – Precision Measurements

mass of top-quark, W mass and couplings, weak mixing angle

Results of studies from Europe, the Americas, Asia

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


A lc is a precision instrument

A LC is a Precision Instrument

  • Clean e+e- (polarized intial state, controllable s for hard scattering)

  • Detailed study of the properties of Higgs particles

    mass to 0.03%, couplings to 1-3%, spin & CP structure, total width (6%) factor 2-5 better than LHC/measure couplings in model indep. way

  • Precision measurements of SUSY particles properties, i.e. slepton masses to better than 1%, if within reach

  • Precision measurements a la LEP (TGC’s, Top and W mass)

  • Large indirect sensitivity to new phenomena (eg WLWL scattering)

A LC will play important role to disentangle the underlying new theory

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Lc physics examples

LC Physics Examples

Understanding SUSY

High accuracy of sparticle mass measurements

relevant for reconstruction of SUSY breaking

mechanism

Dark Matter

LC will accurately measure m and couplings,

i.e. Higgsino/Wino/Bino content

 Essential input to cosmology & searches

LC will make a prediction of DMh²~ 3% (SPS1a)

A mismatch with WMAP/Planck would reveal

extra sources of DM (Axions, heavy objects)

 Quantum level consistency: MH(direct)= MH(indirect)?

sin2W~10-5 (GigaZ), MW ~ 6 MeV

(+theory progress)

 MH (indirect) ~ 5%

1/M GeV-1

Gaugino mass parameters

G. Blair et al

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Generic linear collider

Generic Linear Collider

 J.P. Delahaye

30-40 km

All collider

elements are

challenging

  • Lot of communalities

  • between different

  • LC designs

  • Common work to

    which the CERN-CLIC

    contributes

    Hence, CERN is

    involved in LCs on

    a more general level

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Lc competing technologies spring 2004

LC Competing technologies (spring 2004)

For the main e+e- linac

Superconducting cavities

Warm cavities

Two beam acceleration

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Meanwhile lc getting on the roadmap

Meanwhile: LC getting on the Roadmap

Study groups of ACFA, ECFA, HEPAP The next large accelerator-based project of particle physics should be a linear collider

US DOE Office of Science Future Facilities Plan:LC is first priority mid-term new facility for all US Office of Science

Major Funding Agencies Regular meetings concerning LC

ICFA (February 2004) reaffirms its conviction that the highest priority for a new machine for particle physics is a linear electron-positron collider with an initial energy of 500 GeV, extendible up to about 1 TeV, with asignificant period of concurrent running with the LHC

LCWS04 Paris(April 2004) publication of the document “understanding

matter, space and time” by 2600 physicists, in support of a linear collider

EUROTEV selected by EC 9 MEuro for R&D for a LC

Very sizable community wants a e+e- Linear Collider

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Machine parameters

Machine Parameters

Table from ILC-Technical Review Comittee (2003)

http://www.slac.stanford.edu/xorg//ilc-trc/ilc-trchome.html

beam size

emmitance

luminosity

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Itrp recommendation to icfa ilcsc

ITRP Recommendation to ICFA/ILCSC

ITRP Mission: select a technology

for a machine up to 1 TeV

  • Conclusion at ICHEP Beijing August ‘04

  • Both technologies mature

  • Select the cold technology to continue

Note: technology selected, not a design

  • Endorsed by ICFA/ILCSC

  • call project the

    International Linear Collider ILC

Roadmap

Start Global Design Initiative/Effort (GDI/GDE): B. Barish Central team director

 2006 Conceptual Design Report for Linear Collider

>2007 Technical Design Report for a Linear Collider

2009/2010 Aim to be ready for construction. LHC results? Budget?

First collisions earliest 2015

ILCSC = International Linear Collider Steering Committee

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Clic compact linear collider

CLIC Compact LInear Collider

CERN +

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Linear e e colliders physics and projects

CLIC

  • An e+e- linear collider optimized for a cms energy of 3 TeV with a luminosity of  1035 cm-2s-1

  • Aim: 3 TeV complementing LHC/TeV class LC and breaking new ground, with a final stage up to 5 TeV

  • To achieve this with reasonable cost (less than ~35 km) and not to many active elements

     High accelerating gradient: ~ 150 MV/m

    Two Beam Acceleration (TBA)

     High beamstrahlungs regime to reach

    high luminosity

    Challenging beam parameters and machine

    requirements (nm stability, strong final focus, 30GHz accelerating

    structures)

     CLIC TBA to date the only known way to reach multi-TeV

  • Test facilities CTF2 (’96-’02): 150-193 MV/m in TBA (16 ns pulses)

    CTF3 (’02-’09): Test of drive beam, R1’s/ R2’s of TRC (2003)

Comparison with ILC

TESLA 500 GeV 25MV/m

800 GeV 35MV/m

 Future ILC study?: 44MV/m

See J.P. Delahaye

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Clic a multi tev linear collider

CLIC: a Multi-TeV Linear Collider

Physics case for CLIC

documented in CERN

yellow report

CERN-2004-005 (June)

and hep-ph/0412251

  • CERN: accelerate CLIC R&D support to evaluate the technology by 2009 with extra external contributions  CLIC collaboration.

  • FAQs:

  • CLIC technology R&D O(5) years behind ILC R&D

  • CLIC can operate from 90 GeV 3 (5) TeV .

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Clic parameters backgrounds

CLIC Parameters & Backgrounds

CLIC 3 TeV e+e- collider with a luminosity ~ 1035cm-2s-1 (1 ab-1/year)

CLIC operates in a regime of high

beamstrahlung

CLIC parameters

old new

Time between 2 bunches = 0.67ns

  • Expect large backgrounds

  • # of photons/beam particle

  •  e+e- pair production

       events

     Muon backgrounds

  • Neutrons

  • Synchrotron radiation

    Expect distorted lumi spectrum

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Resonance production

Resonance Production

Resonance scans, e.g. a Z’

1 ab-1M/M ~ 10-4 & / = 3.10-3

Degenerate resonances

e.g. D-BESS model

Can measure M down to 13 GeV

Smeared lumi spectrum allows

still for precision measurements

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Higgs production

Higgs Production

  • Cross section at 3 TeV:

  • Large cross section

    at low masses

  • Large CLIC luminosity

  • Large events statistics

  • Keep large statistics also

    for highest Higgs masses

Low mass Higgs:

400 000 Higgses/year

45K/100K for 0.5/1 TeV LC

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Rare higgs decays h

Rare Higgs Decays: H

Not easy to access at a 500 GeV collider

Also Hbb

for masses up

to 220 GeV

gH

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Higgs potential e e hh

Higgs Potential: e+e- HH

  • Precision on HHH for

  • 5 ab-1 for Higgs masses

  • in the range

  • mH = 120 GeV

  • mH = 140 GeV

  • mH = 180 GeV

  • mH = 240 GeV

3 TeV

Can improve further by using spin information and polarization (factor 1.7)? precision ~ 6-8%

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Heavy higgs mssm

Heavy Higgs (MSSM)

LHC: Plot for 5  discovery

3 TeV CLIC

 H, A

detectable

up to ~ 1.2 TeV

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Supersymmetry

Supersymmetry

(Battaglia at al hep-ph/0306219)

# sparticles that can be detected

Higher mass precision at LC vs LHC

Mass measurements

to O(1%) for smuons

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Precision measurements

Precision Measurements

Taking into account

backgrounds, lumi

spectrum, detector…

E.g.: Contact interactions:

Sensitivity to scales up to

100-800 TeV

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Precision measurements1

Precision Measurements

A light Higgs implies that the Standard Model cannot be stable up to

the GUT or Planck scale (1019 GeV)

The effective potential

blows up, due to heavy

top quark mass

Allowed corridor

but needs strong

fine-tuning…

The electroweak vacuum

is unstable to corrections

from scales  >> v= 246 GeV

Hambye

Riesselmann

 New physics must show up before 100-1000 TeV

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Summary physics at clic

Summary: Physics at CLIC

Experimental conditions at CLIC are more challenging than at LEP, or ILC

Physics studies for CLIC have included the effects of the detector, and backgrounds e.g e+e- pairs and  events.

Benchmark studies show that CLIC

will allow for precision measurements in the TeV range

CLIC has a very large physics potential, reach beyond that of the LHC.

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Linear e e colliders physics and projects

Detector

To exploit the full physics potential

excellent detectors will be needed

International R&D for ILC for

key detector components

vertex

tracking

calorimeter

Detector R&D effort will be needed

for CLIC as well

E.g. Bunch spacing at CLIC= 0.67 nsec

at ILC ~320nsec

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Tracking technologies

Tracking Technologies

3D Silicon

Amorphous Silicon

  • Time stamping will be important O(ns)

  • Macro-pixels?

  • Radiation however not a big issue

    ~ 5 1010 neutrons/cm-2/year

  • Detector R&D will be required!!

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Calorimetry

Calorimetry

  • Importance of good energy resolution (e.g via energy flow)

  • Interesting developments in TeV-class LC working groups

  • e.g. compact 3D EM calorimeters, or “digital” hadronic calorimeters

  • Detailed simulation studies of key processes required

  • R&D accordingly afterwards

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Clic physics studies

CLIC Physics Studies

  • New & more detailed studies on physics processes

    • Some processes to be completed, new processes, other backgrounds

      • Little Higgs Models, Split SUSY, Higgsless ED models…

  • Detector optimization

    • Study so far uses a somewhat adapted TESLA detector

  • Initiate/link with detector R&D

    • If we want to be ready to know how to built a detector for CLIC (tracker, calorimeter, timestamping)

  • Study other options for CLIC ? I.e. lower energy ‘start up’ options

    • ep option (p,A options)

    • Cliche ( factory)

    • Z factory?

    • Higgs factory

    • Compare with TeV class collider (0.5-1 TeV)

    • Full energy  and e option for CLIC

Topics for possible contributions to the CLIC physics study

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Summary

Summary

  • LC physics and accelerator community has a lot of momentum

  • ILC design starting to take shape

    • Machine to produce a CDR soon

    • All regions actively involved in its preparation

  • ILC Roadmap aims for a decision/start construction around 2009

    • First LHC data should be available by then

    • These data will be the referee and motivator for the most optimum next machine to be built

  • CLIC multi-TeV study aims at proof of feasibility/CDR by ~2009

    • Has to be ready in case LHC indicates a multi-TeV machine is required.

  • CLIC has an attractive physics program that can cover the range from the Z-pole (90 GeV) up to the multi-TeV range

  • Opportunities to join the CLIC physics (& Detector) studies

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Backup slides

Backup Slides

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Multi tev collider

Multi-TeV collider

  • Machine Detector Interface related issues to keep in mind if one plans for a facility that can be upgraded to a multi-TeV collider in future

    • Crossing angle needed of ~20 mrad (multi-bunch kink stability)

    • Present design: Long collimator syst. and final focus (2.5 km each side)

    • Energy collimators most important.

      Fast kicker solution not applicable. Maybe rotating collimators …

    • Gentle bending to reduce SR & beam spot growth construct the linacs already under an angle of ~ 20 mrad

    • Internal geometry differences of the collimation system and final focus, allow for enough space in the tunnels (O(m))

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Itrp recommendation to icfa ilcsc1

ITRP Recommendation to ICFA/ILCSC

ITRP Mission: select a technology

R&D to support both technologies

becomes too demanding on resources

  • Conclusion at ICHEP Beijing August ‘04

  • Both technologies mature

  • Select the cold technology to continue

Some arguments in favor of cold

Note: technology selected, not a design

Endorsed by ICFA/ILCSC  call project the International Linear Collider ILC

ILCSC = International Linear Collider Steering Committee

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Ilc parameters options

ILC Parameters & options

  • Baseline Linear Collider

    • Minimum energy of 500 GeV, with int. luminosity of 500 fb-1 in the first 4 years

    • Scan energies between from LEP2 till new energy range: 200-500 GeV with a luminosity ~ s. Switch over should be quick (max 10% of data taking time)

    • Beam energy stability and precision should 0.1% or better.

    • Electron beam polarization with at least 80%

    • Two interaction regions should be planned for

    • Should allow for calibration running at the Z (s = 90 GeV)

    • Upgrade: Energy upgrade up to ~ 1 TeV with high luminosity should be planned

  • Options beyond the baseline: enhance the physics reach

    • Running as an e-e- collider

    • Running as a e or  collider

    • Polarization of the positron beam

    • Running at Z0 with a luminosity of several 1033cm-2s-1 (GigaZ)

    • Running at WW mass threshold with a luminosity of a few times 1033cm-2s-

Several years of intense physics studies have led to:

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Linear e e colliders physics and projects

LC Time Scales

R. Heuer LCWS04

  • ILCSC Road Map

  • Technology recommendation(done)

  • Start Global Design Initiative/Effort (GDI/GDE): central team director job as been offered a few days ago

  • Conceptual Design Report for Linear Collider

  • Start Global Design Organization (GDI/GDO)

  • 2007 Technical Design Report for a Linear Collider

  • 2008 Site selection

  • 2009/2010 Construction could start (if budget approved)

First collisions > 2015?

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Higgs strength of a multi tev collider

Higgs: Strength of a multi-TeV collider

  • Precision measurements of the quantum numbers and properties of Higgs particles, for large Higgs mass range

  • Study of Heavy Higgses (e.g. MSSM H,A,H)

  • Rare Higgs decays, even for light Higgs

  • Higgs self coupling over a wide range of Higgs masses

  • Study of the CP properties of the Higgs…

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Higgs potential

Higgs Potential

Reconstruct shape of the Higgs potential to complete the study of the Higgs

profile and to obtain a direct proof of the EW symmetry breaking mechanism

 Measure the triple (quartic) couplings

process

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Higgs production1

Higgs Production

  • Cross section at 3 TeV:

  • Large cross section

    at low masses

  • Large CLIC luminosity

  • Large events statistics

  • Keep large statistics also

    for highest Higgs masses

Low mass Higgs:

400 000 Higgses/year

45K/100K for 0.5/1 TeV LC

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Higgs strength of a multi tev collider1

Higgs: Strength of a multi-TeV collider

  • Precision measurements of the quantum numbers and properties of Higgs particles, for large Higgs mass range

  • Study of Heavy Higgses (e.g. MSSM H,A,H)

  • Rare Higgs decays, even for light Higgs

  • Higgs self coupling over a wide range of Higgs masses

  • Study of the CP properties of the Higgs…

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


Results e e hh

Results: e+e- HH

  • Precision on HHH for

  • 5 ab-1 for Higgs masses

  • in the range

  • mH = 120 GeV

  • mH = 140 GeV

  • mH = 180 GeV

  • mH = 240 GeV

3 TeV

Can improve by factor 1.7 if both

beams are polarized

Albert De Roeck (CERN)


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