Chapter 21 immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy
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Chapter 21: Immunoprophylaxis and Immunotherapy. I. Immunoprophylaxis II. Immunotherapy. I. Immunoprophylaxis. Conception 1. The way of acquired specific immunization 2. The classification and characteristics of Artificial immunization

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Chapter 21: Immunoprophylaxis and Immunotherapy

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Chapter 21 immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy

Chapter 21: Immunoprophylaxis and Immunotherapy

I. Immunoprophylaxis

II.Immunotherapy


I immunoprophylaxis

I. Immunoprophylaxis

Conception

1. The way of acquired specific immunization

2. The classification and characteristics of

Artificial immunization

3. Biological product and their application


1 the way of acquired specific immunization

1.The way of acquired specific immunization

Natural immunization: heredity, non-specific

Acquired immunization: acquired, specific

Active immunization: natural, artificial

Passive immunization: natural, artificial


Immunity can be acquired through active and passive immunization

Type acquired through

Active immunization: Natural infection or inapparent infection

Artificial infection:

vaccine, toxoid,

attenuated organisms

inactivated organisms

purified microbioal macromolecules

Passive immunization: Natural maternal antibody

Artificial immune serum

Immunity can be acquired through active and passive immunization


I immunoprophylaxis1

I. Immunoprophylaxis

Conception

1. The way of acquired specific immunization

2. The classification and characteristics of

Artificial immunization

3. Biological product and their application


2 the classification and characteristics of artificial immunization

2.The classification and characteristics of Artificial immunization

Artificial active immunization:

Artificial passive immunization:

Comparison:


Chapter 21 immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy

Artificial active immunization

Conception:

Features: 1. The production of the effect:

slow ( induction phase:1-4weeks )

2. The persistent time of immunity:

long (months-years)

3. The application: specific prophylaxis

4. The agents: Ag: vaccine, toxids


Chapter 21 immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy

Artificial passive immunization

Conception:

Features: 1. The production of the effect: fast

2. The persistent time of immunity: short (2-3weeks)

3. The application: treatment and urgent prophylaxis

4. The agents: Ab: antitoxin

antiserum

human gammaglobulin

synthetic peptides

anti-idiotype antibodies


Artificial active artificial passive immunization immunization

Injecting

agents: Ag (vaccines, toxids) Ab (antitoxin, antiserum)

Producting

time: slow (induction phase:1-4W) at once

Persistenting

time: long (months or years) slow (2weeks or months)

The main

application: specific prophylaxis urgent prophylaxis or

(infectious diseases) treatment

Artificial active Artificial passive immunization immunization


I immunoprophylaxis2

I. Immunoprophylaxis

Conception

1. The way of acquired specific immunization

2. The classification and characteristics of

Artificial immunization

3. Biological product and their application


3 biological product and their application

3.Biological product and their application

Biological product

a.Vaccine: Live vaccine (attenuated vaccine)

Killed vaccine

Comparison*:

b.Toxoid: TAT, DAT

c.New vaccine: Live vaccine

Chemical vaccine or subunit vaccine

Compound vaccine

Genetic engineering vaccine

Anti-idiotype vaccine


Chapter 21 immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy

活疫苗 死疫苗

接种方式: 模拟自然感染途径 皮下注射

(皮内,划痕法)

接种剂量: 较小 较大

接种次数: 多数只需一次 两次或多次

(体内有一定繁殖) (体内不繁殖)

副作用: 反应较小 反应较大

(发热、全身或局部反应)

免疫效果: 较好,持续3-5年或更长 较差,持续数月-1年

疫苗保存: 易失效,冻干4C保存 较易保存,较稳定

死疫苗和活疫苗的比较


Recombinant vaccine

Vaccinia promoter

DNA from pathogen

Ligation

Recombinant

plasmid

Vaccinia virus

Plasmid

Plasmid

infection

transfection

Animal-cell culture

Recombinant vaccinia

Recombinant vaccine


Anti idiotype antibodies as vaccine

antibody

antigen

Antigen may

be protein,

carbohydrate,

etc.

First antibody selected

for high affinity for

immunizing antigen,

made monoclonal

Antigenic

determinant

Mice

immunized

idiotype1

Anti-idiotype antibodies

Raised against idiotype 1

Second antibodies

screened for similarity

to original antigen

Anti-

idiotype 1

vaccine

like antigen

unlike antigen

Anti-

idiotype 1

Anti-idiotype antibodies as vaccine


Ii immunotherapy

II.Immunotherapy

Conception

1.Immunopotentiator and indication

2.Immunosuppressant and indication

3. Immunomodulator and the use of them


1 immunopotentiator and indication

1.Immunopotentiator and indication

a. Immunopotentiator:

Chemical agents:

levomisole, cimetidine,isoprinosine(ISO)

Microbiological agents: BCG, vp

Proteins of immune system: Ig,iRNA

b. Indication:

e.g. Tumor, Immunodeficiency, Infectional diseases


2 immunosuppressant and indication

2.Immunosuppressant and indication

a. Immunosuppressant*:

Chemical agents: Cyclophosphamide, Cy

Azathioprine, Aza

Hormone: steroids

Microbiological agents: CyclosporineA(CsA),

Tacrolimus, FK-506

b. Indication:

Organ transplantation

Hypersensitivity diseases

Autoimmune diseases

Infectious diseases


Immunosuppression with drugs

Cyclosporin

Azathioprine

Tc

IL-2

IFN

IL-2R

Th

Steroids

proliferation

CD4

CD8

M

TCR-CD3

TCR-CD3

APC

Tc

MHC-II

MHC-I

Tc

Graft cells

Immunosuppression with Drugs


Chapter 21 immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy

Ag

APC

TH

MHC

TCR

B7

CD28

抑制免疫应答:

Hypersensitivity Disease

Autoimmunity Disease

Graft rejection responses

inactivation

Anti-B7Ab

CTLA4 Ig

Anti-CD28

  • 阻断co-stimulatory signals


3 immunomodulator and the use of them

3.Immunomodulator and the use of them

a. Biological response modifier, BRM

b.Classification and function of BRM


B classification and function of brm

b.Classification and function of BRM

1. Immunoreconstitution:

hemopoietic stem cell and thymus

2. Monoclonal antibodies (McAb) and targeted drug

McAb: Anti-CD3, Anti-CD4, Anti-CD8

Targeted drug*: Immunotoxin, IT

Immunoconjugate,

Radioimmunoconjugate

3. Cytokines and actived immune cells

Cytokines*: Ils, IFN, TNF, CSF, TGF and

Small molecular polypeptides.

Immune cells: LAK, TIL

4. Tumor vaccine

5. Gene therapy*: CK gene therapy


Chapter 21 immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy

McAb-toxin

McAb-medicine

Tumor

McAb-isotope

McAb-enzyme


Cytokine therapy for tumors

Cytokine tumor type and results Cytokine effects and possible

anti-tumor mechanisms

Prolonged remissions of possible cytostatic

hairy-cell leukemia effect on tumor

weak effects on some increased expression of

carcinoma MHC class I, cytostasis

remission of peritoneal increased MHC class I and II

carcinoma of the ovary macrophage activation

Tc activation, cytostasis

IFN

IFN

Remission in renal cancer T-cell activation and

and melanoma proliferation

NK-cell activation

IL-2

? Increased tumor cell adhension

can reduce macrophage and lymphocyte

malignant ascites activation

TNF

Cytokine therapy for tumors


Chapter 21 immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy

Ag

MHC

TCR

CTL

Tumor cell

signal1

CTLactivated

Killer tumor cell

signal2

CD28

B7

Ag

MHC

CTL

TCR

Tumor cell

signal1

CTLactivated

Killer tumor cell

signal2

CD28

Enhancing immune response:

Tumor immunity treatment

TransfectionB7gene


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