The return of peron the dirty wars and their outcomes
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The return of Peron, the Dirty Wars and their outcomes. The return of Perón and the Dirty War. Left wing origins Kidnapping of Pedro Aramburu , May 29, 1970 Accomplished by Emilio Angel Maza and Fernando Luis Abal Medina Leaders of the Montoneros – a tiny group, mostly of leaders

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The return of Perón and the Dirty War

  • Left wing origins

    • Kidnapping of Pedro Aramburu, May 29, 1970

      • Accomplished by Emilio Angel Maza and Fernando Luis Abal Medina

        • Leaders of the Montoneros – a tiny group, mostly of leaders

      • Killed Aramburu and proclaimed that it was the beginning of seizure of power for Perón and Peronism and reprisal for kidnapping corpse of Eva Perón in 1956

      • Caused massive police and military response

        • 72,000 police and military men went looking for Aramburu

      • Followed by seizure of town, La Calera, in Córdoba

      • Received more public support than Marxist ERP


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The return of Perón and the Dirty War

  • Left wing origins

    • Kidnapping of Pedro Aramburu, May 29, 1970

      • Never criticized by Perón, strongly supported by the Peronist Youth (Juventud Peronista)

        • Linked to student, particularly university, activists who joined Montoneros

      • Followed by equally daring activities on part of Marxist groups


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The return of Perón and the Dirty War

  • Return of Perón

    • Preceded by presidential election of Hector Cámpora who was sympathetic to leftist groups and let militants out of jail

    • Perón became president, Oct. 12, 1973

      • Gave hints that he did not support the Left, but they were ignored until Jan. 1974

        • Told leftists to support a repressive reform of the Penal Code

      • Finally, on May 1, 1974 during May Day speech, he called the vocal Montoneros a bunch of stupid idiots

    • Without Montonero support, Perón’s plans for a social pact disappeared


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Perón lying in state


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The return of Perón and the Dirty War

  • Rise of the Extreme Right

    • José López Rega and the AAA

      • Founded the Argentine Anticommunist Alliance within the Social Welfare Ministry in 1973 and they participated in Ezeiza massacre of June 20, 1973

      • Linked to Federal Police

      • Began killing politicians, labor leaders, and guerillas


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The return of Perón and the Dirty War

  • Rise of the Extreme Right

    • Military joined with AAA after Isabel Martínez de Perón invited them to wipe out the guerillas; then took power for themselves on March 24, 1976

      • Inflation and political violence uncontrolled

      • Economy in shambles

      • Montonero response

        • Try to blow up Federal Police chief by putting explosives under a bed and bombing the dining room of the Federal Police Security Branch

      • Military response: massive hunts for subversives; use of torture to extract names of collaborators

      • By 1978, Montoneros mostly defeated, but Dirty War continued


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The return of Perón and the Dirty War

  • Rise of the Extreme Right

    • Role of the Catholic Church

      • Interrogated prisoners, gave comfort to torturers

      • Turned in names of left wing religious, religious youth

      • Tolerated anti-Semitic aspects of Dirty War (JacoboTimerman)

  • The Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo

    • Began to organize in 1977 to protest disappearances of children

    • Early leaders infiltrated by Church informers and some disappeared

    • Gained international support and recognition for their protests

    • Became the voice of conscience for Argentina during the military regime


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