Facts based schemes for distribution networks with dispersed renewable wind energy
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FACTS-based Schemes for Distribution Networks with Dispersed Renewable Wind Energy . Professor Dr. Adel M Sharaf ECE Dept., UNB Fredericton, NB, Canada. Outline. Introduction Motivations Sample Study System Modelling Novel FACTS-based Schemes Controller Tuning Digital Simulation

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Facts based schemes for distribution networks with dispersed renewable wind energy l.jpg

FACTS-based Schemes for Distribution Networks with Dispersed Renewable Wind Energy

Professor Dr. Adel M Sharaf

ECE Dept., UNB

Fredericton, NB, Canada


Outline l.jpg
Outline Renewable Wind Energy

  • Introduction

  • Motivations

  • Sample Study System Modelling

  • Novel FACTS-based Schemes

  • Controller Tuning

  • Digital Simulation

  • Conclusions and Recommendations


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction Renewable Wind Energy

  • Wind is a renewable Green Energy source

Load

kinetic

Energy

Mechanical

Energy

Electrical

Energy


Introduction4 l.jpg
Introduction Renewable Wind Energy

  • Wind is also a clean Abundant Source

  • No Emissions, No Pollutions

carbon

dioxide

sulfur

dioxide

particulates


Introduction5 l.jpg
Introduction Renewable Wind Energy

  • Wind energy is a promising green energy and becomes increasingly viable &popular.

  • The cost of wind-generated electric energy has dropped substantially(6-7 per KWH).

  • By 2005, the worldwide capacity had been increased to 58,982 MW-Cost is $ 2000-2500/KW

  • World Wind Energy Association expects 120,000 MW to be installed globally by 2010.


Introduction6 l.jpg
Introduction Renewable Wind Energy

Total installed wind power MW-capacity

(data fromWorld Wind Energy Association)


Introduction7 l.jpg
Introduction Renewable Wind Energy

  • Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS) Using Large Squirrel Cage/Slip ring Induction Generators

    • Stand alone-Village Electricity

    • Electric Grid Connected WECS

  • Distributed/Dispersed/Farm Renewable Wind Energy Schemes

    • Located closer to Load Centers

    • Low Reliability, Utilization, Security


Motivations l.jpg
Motivations Renewable Wind Energy

  • Energy crisis

    • Shortage of conventional fossil fuel based energy

    • Escalating/rising cost of fossil fuels

  • Environmental/Pollution/GHG Issues

    • Greenhouse gas emission /Carbon Print

    • Acid Rain/Smog/VOC-Micro-Particulates

    • Water/Air/Soil Pollution &Health Hazards


Motivations9 l.jpg
Motivations Renewable Wind Energy

  • Large wind farm utilization is also emerging (50MW-250 MW) Sized Using Super Wind driven Turbines 1.6, 3.6, 5 MW Sizes

  • Many new interface Regulations/Standards/PQ Requirements regarding full integration of large distributed/dispersed Wind Farms into Utility Grid.


Motivations10 l.jpg
Motivations Renewable Wind Energy

  • Challenges for Utility Grid–Wind Integration.

    • Stochastically-Highly Variable wind power injected into the Utility Grid.

    • Increased Wind MW-Power penetration Level.

    • Low SCR-Weak Distribution/Sub Transmission/Transmission Networks

      - Mostly of a Radial Configuration

      - Large R/X ratio distribution Feeder with high Power Losses (4-10 %), Voltage Regulation Problems/Power Quality/Interference Issues.

    • Required Reactive Power Compensation & Increased Burden brought by the induction generator


Sample distribution study system l.jpg
Sample Distribution Study System Renewable Wind Energy

L.L.1

L.L.2

T2

T3

N.L.L

T1

Infinite

Bus

L.L.3

WECS

I.M.


Wecs decoupled interface scheme l.jpg
WECS-Decoupled Interface Scheme Renewable Wind Energy

Uncontrolled

Rectifier

PWM

Inverter

I.G.

Lf

To Grid

Cf

DC Link

Interface

Wind

Turbine

Cself


System description wind turbine l.jpg
System Description-wind turbine Renewable Wind Energy

  • Wind turbine model based on the steady-state power characteristics of the turbine

    • S -- the Total BladeArea swept by the rotor blades (m^2)

    • v -- the wind velocity (m/s)

    • ρ--air density (kg/v^3)


System description l.jpg
System Description Renewable Wind Energy

tip speed ratio λ is the quotient between the tangential speed of the rotor blade tips and the undisturbed wind velocity

C1=0.5176, C2=116, C3=0.4, C4=5, C5=21 and C6=0.0068


System description wind speed l.jpg
System Description Renewable Wind Energy – Wind speed

  • The dynamic wind speed model consists of four basic components:

    • Mean wind speed-14 m/s

    • Wind speed ramp with a slope of ±5.6

    • Wind gust

      • Ag: the amplitude of the gust

      • Tsg: the starting time of the gust

      • Teg: the end time of the gust

      • Dg = Teg - Tsg

    • Turbulence components: a random Gaussian series


Wind speed dynamic model l.jpg
Wind Speed Dynamic Model Renewable Wind Energy

The eventual wind

speed applied to

the wind turbine

is the summation

of all four key

components.


Mpfc facts scheme 1 l.jpg
MPFC-FACTS Scheme 1 Renewable Wind Energy

  • Complementary PWM pulses to ensure dynamic topology change between switched capacitor and tuned arm power filter

  • Two IGBT solid state switches control the operation of the MPFC via a six-pulse diode bridge


Tri loop error driven controller l.jpg
Tri-loop Error Driven Controller Renewable Wind Energy

Modulation

Index

Voltage

Stabilization

loop

Current Harmonic

Tracking Loop

Current Dynamic

Error Tracking loop


Dvr facts scheme 2 l.jpg
DVR-FACTS Scheme 2 Renewable Wind Energy

If S1 is high and S2 is low, both the series and shunt capacitors are connected into the circuit, while the resistor and inductor will be fully shorted

  • A combination of series capacitor and shunt capacitor compensation

  • Flexible structure modulated by a Tri-loop Error Driven Controller

If S1 is low and S2 is high, the series capacitor will be removed from the system, the resistor and inductor will be connected to the shunt capacitors as a tuned arm filter


Hpfc facts scheme 3 l.jpg
HPFC-FACTS Scheme 3 Renewable Wind Energy

  • Use of a 6-pulse VSC based APF to have faster controllability and enhanced dynamic performance

  • Combination of tuned passive power filter and active power filter to reduce cost

Coupling capacitor

Coupling

transformer

PWM converter

Passive Filter tuned near 3rd harmonic

frequency

DC Capacitor to provide the energizing voltage



Novel decoupled multi loop error driven controller l.jpg
Novel Decoupled Multi-loop Error Driven Controller Renewable Wind Energy

  • Using decoupled direct and quad. (d , q) voltage components

  • Using The Phase Locked Loop (PLL) to get the required synchronizing signal- phase angle of the synthesized VSC-Three Phase AC output voltages with Utility-Bus

  • Using Proportional plus Integral (PI) controller to regulate any tracked errors

  • Using Pulse Width Modulation-PWM with a variable modulation index -m


Novel decoupled multi loop error driven controller23 l.jpg
Novel Decoupled Multi-loop Error Driven Controller Renewable Wind Energy

  • Outer-Voltage Regulator: Tri-loop Dynamic Error-Driven controller

    • The voltage stabilization loop

    • The current dynamic error tracking loop

    • The dynamic power tracking loop

  • Inner-Voltage Regulator: Mainly to control the DC-Side capacitor charging and discharging voltage to ensure almost a near constant DC capacitor voltage


Controller tuning l.jpg
Controller Tuning Renewable Wind Energy

  • Control Parameter: Selection/optimization

  • Using a guided Off-Line Trial-and-Error Method based on successive digital simulations

    • Minimize the objective function-Jo

    • Find optimal Gains: kp, ki and individual loop weightings (γ) to yield a near minimum Jo under different set-selections of the controller parameters


Digital simulation l.jpg
Digital Simulation Renewable Wind Energy

  • Digital Study System Validation is done by using Matlab/Simulink/Sim-Power Software Environment under a sequence of excursions:

    • Load switching/Excusrions

      • At t = 0.2 second, the induction motor was removed from bus 5 for a duration of 0.1 seconds;

      • At t = 0.4 second, linear load was removed from bus 4 for a duration of 0.1 seconds;

      • At t = 0.5 second, the AC distribution system recovered to its initial state.

    • Wind-Speed Gusting changes modeled by dynamic wind speed-Software model


Digital simulation27 l.jpg
Digital Simulation Renewable Wind Energy

  • Digital Simulation Environment:

    MATLAB /Simulink/Sim-Power

  • Using the discrete simulation mode with a sample time of 0.1 milliseconds

  • The digital simulations were carried out without and with the novel FACTS-based devices located at Bus 5 for 0.8 seconds





Slide31 l.jpg

The frequency variation at the WECS Renewable Wind Energy

interface without and with MPFC





Slide35 l.jpg

The frequency variation at the WECS Renewable Wind Energy

interface without and with DVR





Slide39 l.jpg

The frequency variation at the WECS Renewable Wind Energy

interface without and with HPFC




Conclusions l.jpg
Conclusions Compensation Scheme

  • Three Novel FACTS-based Converter & Control schemes, namely the MPFC, the DVR, and the HPFC, have been Developed and validated for voltage stabilization, power factor correction and power quality improvement in the distribution network with dispersed wind energy integrated.


Recommendation l.jpg
Recommendation Compensation Scheme

  • The Low-Cost MPFC-Scheme 1 is preferred for low to medium size wind energy integration schemes (from 600 to 5000 kW).

  • The DVR-Scheme 2 is good for Strong AC sub-transmission and distribution systems with large X/R ratio

  • The HPFC-Scheme 2 Active Power Filter & Capacitor Compensator is most suitable for Larger Wind-Farms with MW-energy penetration level (100 MW or above).


Recommendation44 l.jpg
Recommendation Compensation Scheme

  • The schemes validated in this research need to be fully tested in the distribution network with real dispersed wind energy systems.

  • This research can be extended to the grid integration of other dispersed renewable energy.

  • Other Artificial Intelligence based control strategies can be investigated in future work.


Conclusions45 l.jpg
Conclusions Compensation Scheme

  • A Validation Study of a unified sample study system Using the ATLAB/Simulink

  • A dynamic wind speed software model was developed to simulate the varying Random/Stochastic and temporal wind variations in the MATLAB/Simulink

  • Three Novel FACTS based Stabilization Schemes were validated using digital simulations

  • Novel Control strategies using dynamic Multi-Loop Decoupled Controllers were developed & Validated


Publications l.jpg
Publications Compensation Scheme

  • [1] A. M. Sharaf and Weihua Wang, ‘A Low-cost Voltage Stabilization and Power Quality Enhancement Scheme for a Small Renewable Wind Energy Scheme’, 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics, 2006, p.1949-53, Montreal, Canada

  • [2] A. M. Sharaf and Weihua Wang, ‘A Novel Voltage Stabilization Scheme for Standalone Wind Energy Using A Dynamic Sliding Mode Controller’, Proceeding- the 2nd International Green Energy Conference, 2006, Vol. 2, p.205-301, Oshawa, Canada

  • [3] A. M. Sharaf, Weihua Wang, and I. H. Altas, ‘Novel STATCOM Controller for Reactive Power Compensation in Distribution Networks with Dispersed Renewable Wind Energy’, 2007 Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering, Vancouver, Canada, April, 2007

  • [4] A. M. Sharaf, Weihua Wang, and I. H. Altas, ‘A Novel Modulated Power Filter Compensator for Renewable Dispersed Wind Energy Interface’, the International Conference on Clean Electrical Power, 2007, Capri, Italy, May, 2007

  • [5] A. M. Sharaf, Weihua Wang, and I. H. Altas, ‘A Novel Modulated Power Filter Compensator for Distribution Networks with Distributed Wind Energy’ (Accepted by International Journal of Emerging Electric Power System)


Slide47 l.jpg

THANK YOU Compensation Scheme


Slide48 l.jpg

? Compensation Scheme


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