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Sino- Soviet Relations. How it went down…. Background. Treaty of V ersailles, Shandong, given to Japan. Student protest against “spineless” Chinese government. U.S weak on self-determination and anti-imperialism – Chinese intellectuals start considering M/L to solve issues.

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sino soviet relations

Sino- Soviet Relations

How it went down…

  • Treaty of Versailles, Shandong, given to Japan. Student protest against “spineless” Chinese government.
  • U.S weak on self-determination and anti-imperialism – Chinese intellectuals start considering M/L to solve issues.
  • Post Qing dynasty warlords ruled – KMT leader Sun Yat-sen ignored by west, turned to soviets.
  • 1922 – CPC – 200 members, KMT 50,000
  • Soviet policy of duel support
  • 1927 Shanghai Massacre – CPC-KMT split.
civil war 1927 1949
Civil War 1927-1949
  • 1929 Manchurian Chinese Eastern railway – armed conflict with S.U
  • CPC growing popularity – Mao collabs with peasant rebels
  • Long March – Zhang Guotao’s failure – Mao undisputed leader
  • Second Sino-Japanese war – KMT more concerned with CPC – CPC guerrilla tactics against Japs wins more support
  • Soviets give CPC Japanese weapons – U.S keeps Manchuria from communists, helps KMT
  • Outbreak – Chiang and KMT retreat to Taiwan. PRC established
early relationships
Early relationships
  • 1937 non aggression pact – help against Japanese, enabled Stalin to focus on west
  • Manchuria
  • Treaty of friendship and alliance (1950) – 300 million low-interest loan. Stress on relationship
  • Korean War – Stalin, Mao debate – Mao takes ground, Stalin air – changed relationship from titular to virtual
  • After Civil War, Soviets become PRC closest ally – design, equipment and skilled labour to help industrialize and modernize.
  • 1960’s Sino-soviet border conflict – increasingly PRC began to consider S.U as social imperialist and its greatest threat.
  • As you have read in your text book Stalin and

Mao did not see eye to eye on a lot of things.

Ideological differences were not the only reasons what were they?

  • Peasants as a basis for revolution
  • Feared Mao as com leader
  • Did not want CW to spread to Asia
  • Preferred KMT
s eeds
  • In fighting civil war and Japanese – Mao ignored a lot of Stalin’s military advice and direction
  • Because of it’s position there was no urban working class. Why is this a problem?
  • Dawn out of China - “to change Marxism from a European to an Asiatic form... in ways of which neither Marx nor Lenin could dream”. – Due to struggle in Korea alliance continued despite.
  • Mao’s insistence of mobilization through peasant workers – lead to Great Leap Forward
honeymoon period and khrushchev
Honeymoon period and Khrushchev
  • After Stalin’s death there was a period of reconciliation.
  • Khrushchev put an end to that by criti-

cising Stalin and therefore Mao.

  • Soviet failure to ‘contain reactionary forces’ ?
  • Restoration of relationship with Josip Broz Tito (Stalin had denounced in 48)
  • De-emphasising of the core M/L idea of inevitable war between capitalism and socialism
  • Peaceful co-existence – ideological heresy
  • Soviet succession by ‘revisionists’
activity time
Activity time
  • Split into pairs and answer the review exercise on page 120 of your text books.
and then it got humpty dumpty
And then it got Humpty Dumpty…
  • Sino – Indian war, Khrushchev too appeasing to the west.
  • Soviets engaged in superpower confrontations (Berlin)
  • Mao critical of Khrushchev in Cuba – detectable weapons , backing down. “Khrushchev has moved from adventurism to capitulation”
  • Mao’s approach would provoke nuclear war
  • 1964 –Mao claims counter-revolution activity in USSR has re-established capitalism. Split final.
  • Warsaw countries follow Soviet suit.
  • After Khrushchev’s death, relations initially same.
cold war context
Cold War context
  • Early Cold-War interpretation had a two way ideological competition exclusively between the U.S and USSR. Chinese competition with the USSR and subsequent communist-rivalry transformed the Cold-War into a “tripolar geopolitical contest”.

Goodwill Commy bastards