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Fall 2011. Chapter 13. Software Project Management. Project Management Process. Why do we need project management? Why can’t we just follow one of the software development process and be left alone?. All projects – small and large – need project management

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Fall 2011

Chapter 13

Software Project Management


Project management process
Project Management Process

  • Why do we need project management?

  • Why can’t we just follow one of the software development process and be left alone?

All projects – small and large – need project management

because all projects need some degree of :

- planning

- organizing

- status monitoring

- adjustment


Software project management poma process
Software Project Management (POMA) Process

This process looks

sequential at the macro

level, but may be very

iterative at the micro

level

Project

Planning

Project

Organizing

Project

Monitoring

Project

Adjusting


Goals of software project management
Goals of Software Project Management

  • End results of the project satisfy the customer’s needs

  • All the desired and the needed product/project attributes (quality, security, productivity, cost, etc.) are met

  • Target milestones and the over-all schedule are met.

  • Team members are operating effectively and at a high level of morale

  • Required tools and other resources are made available and are effectively utilized


Planning p oma
Planning (POMA)

  • The 1st step of project planning is to understand the requirements of the project.

    • This step itself may be a mini-project

  • Then the following 4 steps are included in the rest of project planning:

    • Estimate

      • the work effort,

      • the schedule, and

      • the needed resources

    • Clearly define and establish measurable goals for the project

    • Determine the project resource allocations of

      • people,

      • process,

      • tools, and

      • facilities

    • Identify and analyze the project risks


Organizing p o ma
Organizing (POMA)

  • Once a project plan is formulated or partially formulated, organizing may start

    • Organization structure needs to be designed

    • Human resource hiring needs to start and be completed along with acquisition of other resources

    • Any required education and training have to be completed

    • Mechanisms for tracking must be established

      • Risk tracking and mitigation

      • Project goal monitoring


Comparing and pairing planning and organizing activities
Comparing and Pairing Planning and Organizing Activities

Organizing

Planning

Project content and deliverables

Set up tracking mechanisms of

tasks and schedules

Project tasks and schedule

Acquire, hire and prepare resources

such as people, tools and processes

Project resources

Establish mechanism to measure

and track the goals

Project goals and measurement

Establish mechanism to list, track,

and assign risk mitigation tasks

Project risks


Monitoring po m a
Monitoring (POMA)

  • Once the project is organized and set into motion, there still needs to be regular tracking to ensure that it is headed in the right direction. (Projects can not be left to coast along by itself.)

  • 3 main components of project monitoring:

    • Project status information collection

    • Analysis and evaluation of collected information

    • Presentation and communication of the project status


Different ways of visualization reporting of information and project status
Different ways of Visualization/Reporting of Information and Project Status

Pie Chart

Histogram

Pareto Diagram

Upper

limit

lower

limit

time

Time Chart

Control Chart

Kiviat Chart


Adjusting pom a
Adjusting (POM Project StatusA)

  • It is highly unlikely that a software project progresses with no problem. As soon as the project status suggests potential problem, we must not be afraid to make changes.

  • 3 main areas of adjustments are (or combinations of) :

    • Resources

    • Schedule

    • Project content


Software Project Management Process Project Status

is not the same as

- Software Development Process or

- Software Life Cycle


Some project management techniques
Some Project Management Techniques Project Status

  • Planning : Project Effort Estimation

    • General view:

      • Units of effort = a + b (size)c + Σ(factors)

        where a, b, and c set of estimated constants,

        size is the estimated size of the project

        and factors are additional factors of concern

    • Most of the estimating techniques use some form of this general “formula”

      • COCOMO I and COCOMO II models

      • Function Point model


Some project management techniques cont
Some Project Management Techniques Project Status(cont.)

  • Planning and Organizing: Work Breakdown Structure

    • Estimation of the complete project by

      • Deliverables

      • Tasks required to develop the deliverables

      • Resources required to perform the tasks


Work breakdown structure wbs
Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Project Status

  • Examine and determine the external deliverables of the project.

  • Identify the steps and tasks required to produce each of the deliverables, including the tasks that are required to produce any intermediate internal deliverables

  • Sequence the tasks, showing any potential for parallelism

  • Provide an estimate to complete each of the tasks

  • Provide an estimate of the productivity of the personnel that is most likely to be assigned to each of the tasks

  • Calculate the time required to accomplish each task

  • For each of the external deliverable, lay out the timeline of all the tasks needed to produce that deliverable and label the resources that will be assigned to the tasks.


Example of task network with estimated time units
Example of: Project StatusTask Network with Estimated Time Units

Task-4a

2

Task-5a

1

Task-3a

6

End

Task-4b

2

Task-5b

1

Task-3b

6

Task 1

12

Task 2

2

Task-4c

2

Task-5c

1

Task-3c

6


End result of wbs initial schedule estimate
End result of WBS = Initial Schedule Estimate Project Status

Time

Tasks

Person

1

X,Y,Z

12 units

X,Y,Z

2

2

3a

X

6

3b

Y

6

3c

Z

6

4a

Z

2

4b

X

2

4c

Y

2

5a

X

1

1

5b

Y

Z

1

5c


Some project management techniques cont1
Some Project Management Techniques Project Status(cont.)

  • Monitoring: Earned Value

    • A technique to track the project status by comparing (at some specific time):

      • How much effort has been expended versus

      • How much effort was planned to have been expended


Definitions for earned value
Definitions for Earned Value Project Status

  • Budgeted Cost of Work (BCW) : estimated effort for each of the work tasks

  • Budgeted Cost of Work Scheduled (BCWS): sum of estimated effort of all the tasks that were planned to be completed (on aspecific date)

  • Budget at Completion (BAC): estimate of the total project effort or sum of all the BCWs

  • Budgeted Cost of Work Performed (BCWP): The sum of the estimated efforts of all the tasks that have been completed (on a specific date)

  • Actual Cost of Work Performed (ACWP): The sum of the actual efforts of all the tasks that have been completed (on a specificdate)

  • Earned Value (EV) indicates how much of the estimated work is completed on a specific date.

EV = BCWP / BAC


Earned value example
Earned Value Example Project Status

Date : 4/5/2005

Note the status

checking date

Actual

Effort spent

so far in

Pers-days

Estimated

Completion

date in

mm/dd/yy*

Actual

Completion

date in

mm/dd/yy*

Estimated

Effort in

Pers-days

Work

Tasks

10

10

1

2/5/05

2/5/05

2

25

3/15/05

3/25/05

15

3

30

15

4/25/05

4

5/5/05

4/1/05

25

20

5

5

5/25/05

15

6/10/05

20

15

6

* mm/dd/yy is month/ day/ year format


Earned value example cont
Earned Value Example (cont.) Project Status

  • For work task 4, BCW is 25 person-days; for task 6, BCW is 20 person-days.

  • BAC is the sum of the estimated efforts for all the tasks or

    BAC = (10+15+30+25+15+20 = 115 person-days)

  • BCWS for the date 4/5/06 is the sum of the estimated effort of all the tasks which were schedule to be completed on or before 4/5/06 or

    BCWS = ( 10 + 15 = 25 person days)

  • BCWP for the date 4/5/06 is the sum of the estimated effort of all the tasks which were actually completed on or before 4/5/06 or

    BCWP = (10 + 15 + 25 = 50 person-days)

  • ACWP for the date 4/5/06 is the sum of the actual efforts expended for all the tasks that have been completed on or before 4/5/06 or

    ACWP = ( 10 + 25 + 20 = 55 person-days)

- EV = BCWP / BAC = 50/115 = .434 or

the project is estimated to be 43% complete as of 4/5/06


Applying gqm
Applying GQM Project Status

  • In order to apply the GQM methodology one needs to spent some time at the “Conceptual Level”:

    • Conceptualize the property of interest

    • Develop clear definitions of possible sub-attributes related to the conceptualized property

    • Determine if these sub-attributes can take on any numeric values --- if not then it would be difficult to get to the Quantitative Level ---- may need to re-look at the definitions and/or reconsider the sub-attributes


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