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H 2 O P-T Phase Diagram

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H2O P-T Phase Diagram

For High T the Energy

is Mostly Kinetic Energy

and KE= ½ mu2

(u=the molecular speed is high)

(m=molecular mass )

[u]- meters per sec, ms-1

[m]- kilograms, kg

[KE] - joules, J

PE

KE

•What is Temperature(T)?

•What is pressure(P)?

•What is volume(V)?

•N=number of particles(atoms/molecules)

•N/V= number density( number per unit volume)

Van der Waals

Potential Curves

E= KE + V(R)

For gases KE>> V(R)

e

s

Fig. 9-18, p. 392

Zero energy

turning point

Bond energy

Table 9-4, p. 392

Van der Waals

Potential Curves

E= KE + V(R)

For gases KE>> V(R)

e

s

Fig. 9-18, p. 392

H2O P-T Phase Diagram

For High T the Energy

is Mostly Kinetic Energy

and KE= ½ mu2

(u=molecular speed is high)

(m=molecular mass )

[u]- meters per sec, ms-1

[m]- kilograms, kg

[KE] - joules, J

PE

KE

Measuring the speed distribution in a gas

Effusion cell

Solid or

liquid sample

Fig. 9-19, p. 394

Effusive beam used to mDx/easure speed distribution

u=Dx/Dt

For He with u=500 ms-1

m= 4 amu

KE= ½ (4 amu)(500 ms-1)2

(1.66x10-27 kg)(500,000m2s-2)

KE=8.3 x10-22 J

Dx

Speed

Fig. 9-13, p. 383

Fig. 9-15, p. 385

<u>=(8kBT/πm)1/2 average speed

<u2>=(3kBT/m) average square speed

urms= (3kBT/m)1/2 root mean square speed

ump = (2kBT/m)1/2 most probable spped

Fig. 9-14, p. 384

Fig. 9-11, p. 379

Van der Waals

Potential Curves

E= KE + V(R)

For gases KE>> V(R)

e

s

Fig. 9-18, p. 392

<u>=(8kBT/πm)1/2 average speed

<u2>=(3kBT/m) average square speed

urms= (3kBT/m)1/2 root mean square speed

ump = (2kBT/m)1/2 most probable spped

Fig. 9-14, p. 384

Effusive beam used to mDx/easure speed distribution

u=Dx/Dt

For He with u=500 ms-1

m= 4 amu

KE= ½ (4 amu)(500 ms-1)2

(1.66x10-27 kg)(500,000m2s-2)

KE=8.3 x10-22 J

Dx

Speed

Fig. 9-13, p. 383