Pinhole Photography. A camera has a few simple components: A light tight box Aperture – A hole through which light enters the camera. Shutter – A way to control how long light enters the box. Lens – A way of focusing light for a sharp image. Viewfinder – A way to aim the camera.
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A camera has a few simple components:
A light tight box
Aperture – A hole through which light
enters the camera.
Shutter – A way to control how long
light enters the box.
Lens – A way of focusing light for a
Viewfinder – A way to aim the camera.
Film Holder – A way to hold the film
in the correct place to receive the focused light.
A pinhole camera is
the most basic image
forming device in
photography. It is a
direct descendant of
the camera obscura,
(Latin for “darkroom”).
The camera was
actually a large
room that would be
entered by the user.
Light entering a small hole in a darkened room produces an inverted image on the opposite wall. It was used initially to view solar eclipses, but by the seventeenth century the process was made portable by fitting a lens to one end of a box and using a sheet of glass at the opposite end to view the image. A mirror inserted inside at a 45 degree angle would reverse the image, giving the viewer a corrected orientation.
giving the viewer corrected orientation.
Sir David Brewster,
a Scottish scientist,
coined the word
one of the first to
photographs in the
Instead of a lens,
the camera has a
small hole that
admits light. The
image is not as
sharp as one
formed by a lens,
but the entire
field of view has
an equal degree of
depth of field.
the photo is
Only a few light rays from each point on the subject can get through the tiny opening and reach the film in small clusters that cause minimal blurring. rays
A larger hole permits a greater number of rays from each point on the subject to enter the camera. These rays are recorded as large circles which tend to overlap each other, creating an unclear image. They are called circles of confusion.
Straight surfaces may look curved
if the film plane is curved.
Any deviation from round will affect the sharpness and the perspective of the image. An oval or short slit will smear the image in the direction of the longest
Renner, Eric. 2000. Pinhole Photography: Rediscovering a Historic Technique. Focal Press, Boston.
Upton, Barbara and Upton, John. 1981. Photography. Little, Brown and Co., Boston.