Pinhole Photography
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Pinhole Photography. A camera has a few simple components: A light tight box Aperture – A hole through which light enters the camera. Shutter – A way to control how long light enters the box. Lens – A way of focusing light for a sharp image. Viewfinder – A way to aim the camera.

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Pinhole Photography

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Pinhole Photography


A camera has a few simple components:

A light tight box

Aperture – A hole through which light

enters the camera.

Shutter – A way to control how long

light enters the box.

Lens – A way of focusing light for a

sharp image.

Viewfinder – A way to aim the camera.

Film Holder – A way to hold the film

in the correct place to receive the focused light.


A pinhole camera is

the most basic image

forming device in

photography. It is a

direct descendant of

the camera obscura,

(Latin for “darkroom”).

The camera was

actually a large

room that would be

entered by the user.


Light entering a small hole in a darkened room produces an inverted image on the opposite wall. It was used initially to view solar eclipses, but by the seventeenth century the process was made portable by fitting a lens to one end of a box and using a sheet of glass at the opposite end to view the image. A mirror inserted inside at a 45 degree angle would reverse the image, giving the viewer a corrected orientation.

giving the viewer corrected orientation.


Sir David Brewster,

a Scottish scientist,

coined the word

"pinhole“and was

one of the first to

make pinhole

photographs in the

1850s.


Instead of a lens,

the camera has a

small hole that

admits light. The

image is not as

sharp as one

formed by a lens,

but the entire

field of view has

an equal degree of

sharpness.


A pinhole

camera has

nearly infinite

depth of field.

Everything in

the photo is

in focus.


Only a few light rays from each point on the subject can get through the tiny opening and reach the film in small clusters that cause minimal blurring. rays


A larger hole permits a greater number of rays from each point on the subject to enter the camera. These rays are recorded as large circles which tend to overlap each other, creating an unclear image. They are called circles of confusion.


Straight surfaces may look curved

if the film plane is curved.


This image was made from a camera with six pinholes.


A nineteen hole camera.


Any deviation from round will affect the sharpness and the perspective of the image. An oval or short slit will smear the image in the direction of the longest

dimension.


Horizontal front slit, with a vertical back slit.


A pinhole camera can be made out of just about anything. This one is made from a red bell pepper, which acts as a safelight for paper.


Sources

http://www.nh.ultranet.com/

~stewoody/photo.htm

http://neon.airtime.co.uk/pinhole/

http://www.pinholeresource.com

/gallery1.html

Renner, Eric. 2000. Pinhole Photography: Rediscovering a Historic Technique. Focal Press, Boston.

Upton, Barbara and Upton, John. 1981. Photography. Little, Brown and Co., Boston.

Renner, Eric,


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