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N5 Music Through The Ages. Baroque Music. Baroque Concerto Opera Scale Major / Minor Chord / Harmony Broken chord / Arpeggio Pedal Inverted Pedal Canon Binary AB Ternary ABA. Concerto Cadenza Harpsichord Ground Bass Soprano / Alto Tenor / Bass Mezzo Soprano / Baritone Ornament

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N5 Music Through The Ages

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N5 music through the ages

N5 Music Through The Ages

Baroque Music

N5 music through the ages

BaroqueConcertoOperaScaleMajor / MinorChord / HarmonyBroken chord / ArpeggioPedalInverted PedalCanonBinary ABTernary ABA




Ground Bass

Soprano / Alto

Tenor / Bass

Mezzo Soprano / Baritone





Syllabic / Melismatic

All concepts in red are Higher concepts

N5 music through the ages

The word Baroque was first used to describe the highly decorative and grand style of architecture and art of the 17th Century

Musicians adopted the word using it to describe the musical styles of the years 1600-1750

N5 music through the ages

The system of Modes, which the tonality was based on in the Medieval and Renaissance periods was disused and by the end of the 17th Century music was based on Major and Minor tonalities.

Many new musical structures were introduced and developed by Baroque composers including......






Concerto Grosso




N5 music through the ages

There were many important composers in the Baroque period.... The two most influential were:

  • George Frederic Händel

  • 1685-1759

  • Born in Halle, Germany

  • Died in London England

  • Johann Sebastian Bach

  • 1685-1750

  • Born in Eisenach, Germany

  • Died Leipzig Germany

N5 music through the ages

Baroque Instrumental Music

The Violin family (Violin, Viola, Cello and Double bass) replaced the viols of the renaissance period in the first half of the Baroque period.

  • The Baroque Orchestra Contained

  • A string section

  • 1 or 2 flutes (or recorders), oboes and bassoons

  • 1 or 2 horns and occasionally trumpets (NO VALVES !!!)

  • Timpani

  • Organ or Harpsichord (Continuo)

N5 music through the ages

The organ or harpsichord played a continuo or figured bass

The performer follows a Bass line with a series of figures (Figured bass) which tells the player which chords to improvise around

N5 music through the ages

The key styles of instrumental composition in the baroque period were.............




Ground Bass - A theme in the bass which is repeated many times while the upper parts are varied.


Concerto Grosso

N5 music through the ages

Concerto Grosso

Was one of the most important forms developed in the Baroque period

In concerto Grosso, a small group of soloists called the Concertinocontrast against the orchestra Ripieno

The most well known concerto Grosso are the Brandenburg concertos by J.S Bach

N5 music through the ages


Composers moved away from the homophonic texture; where all parts move together to polyphonic/contrapuntal writing, where two or more parts move at different times from each other

The fugue is the most important type of polyphonic writing in the Baroque period, and is based on imitation.

The fugueuses 3 or 4 parts which merge together and overlap using imitation

Fugues were mostly written for harpsichord or organ

N5 music through the ages

The two main types of Baroque vocal compositions are

Opera and Oratorio, These are similar but have some differences....

Opera would be performed in a concert Hall or Opera house

Oratorio would be performed in a church

N5 music through the ages

The solo song in opera and Oratorio is called an Aria,

The key features of an aria are.......

Accompanied by orchestra

Usually in ternary form

Known as Da Capo Arias

Syllabic: where each syllable of each word is given 1 musical note to be sung

Melismatic: where each syllable can be given more than one note per syllable

Word Painting:Where the musical line reflects the words being sung

N5 music through the ages


  • Texture where you hear melody with accompaniment or where all the parts play a similar rhythm at the same time.

  • See how the parts all have the same rhythm here:


Texture which consists of two or more melodic lines, possibly of equal importance, which weave independently of each other. Polyphonic is similar in meaning to contrapuntal.

N5 music through the ages


A section of music linking two appearances of the same material. Listen to an episode from a Concerto Grosso.

In Fugue an episode can be used as a modulating link between entries of the subject and is frequently based on fragments from the subject or Counter subject.


N5 music through the ages

Short for pedal point. A note which is sustained, or repeated continuously, in the bass beneath changing harmonies.

In the notation, a pedal note can be seen in the lower part.


Inverted Pedal

A note which is held on or repeated continuously

at a high pitch. Opposite in pitch to pedal.

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