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D ESIGN O F H IGH P ERFORMANCE C ONCRETE ( HPC ) M IXTURE I N A GRESSIGE E NVIRONMENT. United Arab Emirates University College of Engineering Civil and Environmental Engineering Department Graduation Project II. Prepared by: Saeed Khamis Al Haddadi 200203853

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d esign o f h igh p erformance c oncrete hpc m ixture i n a gressige e nvironment

DESIGN OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE (HPC) MIXTURE IN AGRESSIGE ENVIRONMENT

United Arab Emirates University College of EngineeringCivil and Environmental Engineering DepartmentGraduation Project II

Prepared by:

SaeedKhamis Al Haddadi 200203853

Nayel Rashid Al Shamsi 200216968

MansourMohd Al Shebli 200204979

SaeedNahyan Al Ameri 200204458

MuathMohd Al Mazrooei 200205340

Adviser’s name:

Dr. Amr S. El Dieb

2st Semester 2007/2008

outlines
Outlines…

Introduction

Objective

Mix Design Methods

Experiment and Testing

Gant Chart

slide3

Introduction…

  • HPC is defined as concrete which meets special performance and uniformity requirements that cannot always be achieved by using only the conventional materials
  • Concrete is composed principally of aggregates, Portland cements, water, and may contain other cementations materials and/or chemical admixtures.
slide4

Introduction…

  • The selection of concrete proportions involves a balance between economy and requirements for place ability, strength, durability, and density (i.e. its performance).
  • HPC is characterized by its high performance in any of its properties or characteristics
  • Usually the term HPC is used to define high durable concrete (i.e. concrete characterized by high durability)
slide5

Impact

Concrete

Environment

Impact

Concrete

Environment

Resistance

Deterioration

Durable Concrete

(HPC)

  • Introduction…
  • The required durability characteristics are governed by the application of concrete and by conditions expected to be encountered at the time of placement. These characteristics should be listed in the job specifications.
objective
Objective…
  • The effect of different SCM with various dosages on HPC mixes will be evaluated for various aggressive environments.
  • Different concrete mix design methods will be implemented and compared to design HPC mixes.
  • Control concrete mix will be designed having a compressive strength of 40 to 50 MPa, slump between 100 – 120 mm and the cement content is 350 kg/m3.
mix design methods
Mix Design Methods…
  • There are two well known mix design methods implemented by various codes :
  • BS 8328 mix design method.
  • ACI 211.1-91 mix design method.
mix design criteria
Mix Design Criteria
  • To perform a concrete mix design several criteria (i.e inputs) are needed together with the properties of the used materials
  • The criteria needed includes:
    • Required strength
    • Required slump
    • Minimum cement content
  • Properties of available or used materials; investigated in GPI
bs method
BS Method

Approximate compressive strength (N/mm2) of concrete mixes made with a free water/cement ratio 0.5

bs method10
BS Method..

Relationship between compressive strength and free water-/cement ratio

From this graph w/c ratio is determined for the required strength

47

0.47

bs method11
BS Method

Approximate free water content (Kg/m3) required to give various levels of workability.

Slump is adjusted by admixture dosage

bs method12
BS Method

Estimated wet density of fully compacted concrete to calculate the aggregate quantity

2420

170

bs method13
BS Method

Determines the mixing ratio of fine and coarse aggregates depending on the grading zone of the fine aggregate (1,2,3 &4)

aci method

ACI Method…

Relationship between water-cement or water- cementations

materials ratio and compressive strength of concrete

aci method16

ACI Method…

Approximate mixing water and air content requirements for different slumps and nominal maximum sizes of aggregates

aci method17

ACI Method

Volume of coarse aggregate per unit of volume of concrete

discussion
Discussion
  • After we used two methods we found ACI method is not appropriate to design our control mix because the maximum strength we can design using this method is 34 MPa and it is using cylinder not cube so BS method is used.
  • Also there isn’t any mix design method which considers the incorporation of supplementary materials such as Slag and Silica fume.
  • Typical concrete mix used in the country is designed using material investigated in GPI.
slide19

Criteria for mix design

      • Parameters:
        • Silica fume
        • Slag
        • Combination of silica fume and slag
  • Many ready mix company in my country used silica fume in range of 8% and slag in range of 40% to 60% of cement content.
  • We will use 5% , 8%, and 15% of silica fume to make comparison between it.
  • Also we will used 25%,40% and 60% of slag to compare between it.
  • In addition, we will study the ternary blends ( silica fume and slag ).
slide20

Criteria for mix design

Strength 40-50 MPa

Slump 100- 120 mm“ controlled by admixture

C.C. at least 350 kg/m3

Mix Proportions/ m3

Batch Quantities

slide23

Introduction

SCM

  • SCM usually works in two ways:
  • As microfilling materials i.e. physical effect (in early stages)
  • Pozzolanic materials (in late stages)

Microfilling Effect (Physical effect)

pozzolanic reaction
Pozzolanic Reaction

SCM in finely divided form provides a source of reactive silica that in the presence of moisture will combine with CH to form C-S-H and other cementing.

Typically slow down hydration, but significantly improve durability and long-term strength

Introduction

pozzolanic reaction25
Pozzolanic Reaction

2C3S + 6H  C-S-H + 3CH

2C2S + 4H  C-S-H + CH

CH + SCM + H  C-S-H

Introduction

hydration of c 3 s c 2 s

Hydration of C3S & C2S

Introduction

CH

C-S-H

slide27

SCM Material

Silica Fume

Result of the reduction of high-purity quartz with coal in an electric arc furnace in the manufacture of silicon or ferrosilicon alloy.

Have large surface area

slide28
Slag

Made from iron blast-furnace slag.

It is a non-metallic hydraulic cement consisting essentially of silicates and alumino-silicates of calcium.

SCM Material

slide29

Mixes

Batch Quantities

slide30

Lab strategy

Batching Strategy

Table 4.2.1

slide31

Lab strategy

  • Testing Strategy

Table 4.2.2

slide37

Testing

We did four type of tests which are:

  • Compressive Strength (Cube Test):
    • Normal compressive strength
    • Compressive Strength in Sulfate Solution
  • Tensile Strength.
  • Sorptivity Test.
  • Resistivity Test
slide38

Normal compressive strength

Compressive Strength

10 cm

10 cm

10 cm

slide39

Normal compressive strength

Figure 5.4: Compressive strength at 7, 28 and 56 days for different dosage of silica fume

slide40

Normal compressive strength

Figure 5.5: Compressive strength at 7, 28 and 56 days for mixes with different dosage of slag

slide41

Normal compressive strength

Figure 5.6: Compressive strength at 7, 28 and 56 days for mixes combination with slag and silica fume in different dosage.

slide42

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

100 Liter with 5% NaSO4

Water heater

silica fume effect

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Silica fume effect:

Table 5.3.1.1: Test results for different percentage of SF

slide45

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Silica fume effect:

Figure 5.7: Effect of sulfate solution on cube strength in ambient temperature for mixes with different SF dosage

slide46

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Silica fume effect:

Figure 5.8: Effect of high temperature sulfate solution on cube strength for mixes with different dosage of SF

slide47

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Silica fume effect:

Table 5.3.1.2: Reduction in strength at different immersion periods for different percentages of Silica Fume

slide48

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Silica fume effect:

Figure 5.9:

Difference in strength between hot results and ambient for differ percentages of SF in sulfate solution

slide49

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Slag effect:

Table 5.3.2.1: Test results for different percentage of Slag

slide50

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Slag effect:

Figure 5.10: Effect of ambient temperature sulfate exposure on mixes with different Slag contents

slide51

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Slag effect:

Figure 5.11: Effect of high temperature sulfate exposure on mixes with different Slag contents

slide52

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Slag effect:

Table 5.3.2.2: Reduction in compressive strength for slag mixes in sulfate solution

slide53

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Slag effect:

Figure 5.12: Difference in strength between hot results and ambient for differ percentages of Slag in sulfate solution

slide54

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Combined slag & silica fume:

Table 5.3.3.1: Test results for different percentage of Slag and Silica Fume

slide55

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Combined slag & silica fume:

Figure 5.13: Effect of high temperature sulfate exposure on mixes with combined slag and silica fume with different contents

slide56

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Combined slag & silica fume:

Figure 5.14: Effect of ambient temperature sulfate exposure on mixes with different Slag and Silica Fume contents

slide57

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Combined slag & silica fume:

Table 5.3.3.2: Reduction in compressive strength for combined slag and silica fume mixes in sulfate solution.

slide58

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Combined slag & silica fume:

Figure 5.15: Difference in strength between hot results and ambient for differ percentages of Slag and Silica Fume in sulfate solution

slide59

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Strength Reduction:

Table 5.3.4.1: Reduction in compressive strength for combined slag and silica fume mixes in sulfate solution

slide60

Compressive strength in sulfate solution

Strength Reduction:

Figure 16: Strength reduction at 56 age

slide61

2*Failure Load (N)

π*200*100

Ft =

Tensile strength

Splitting tensile Strength

10 cm

20 cm

slide62

Tensile strength

Table 5.4.1: Test results at 7 & 28 days of age

slide63

Tensile strength

Figure 5.18: Splitting tensile strength for silica fume mixes.

slide64

Tensile strength

Figure 5.19: Splitting tensile strength for slag mixes.

slide65

Tensile strength

Figure 5.20:

Splitting tensile strength for combine slag & silica fume mixes.

slide66

Sorptivity test

ASTM C 1585; Sorptivity Test

This test is based on the Hall’s theory and adopted in ASTM recently

Require a concrete disc of at least 300gm weight

Concrete specimens are oven dried

The specimen’s sides are sealed using any sealant

One surface of the specimen is exposed to water and the change in weight with time is measured (at least 5 measurements) over 30 minutes period

Plot the graph between penetration depth (i) and square root of time (time1/2) to calculate Sorptivity

slide67

Surface sealant

(electrical vinyl tape)

Container

Water

Concrete

Specimen

Circular support

Sorptivity test

slide69

Constant

Exposure time (min)

Penetration depth (mm)

Rate of Absorption

i.e. Sorptivity (mm/min1/2)

Sorptivity test

  • One dimensional flow through partially saturated concrete can be expressed using Hall’s expression
slide70

i

Slope = Sorptivity (S) mm/min1/2

Constant = A

Time1/2

Sorptivity test

Change in specimen weight (gm)

Cross sectional area (mm2)

Water density (gm/mm3)

slide71

Sorptivity test

Specimen Location and Code = C1-1

Specimen Diameter (mm) = 100 mm

slide72

Sorptivity test

Table 5.1.1: Average Sorptivity test value at 28 and 56 days of age

slide73

Sorptivity test

Figure 5.1: Comparison of Sorptivity values between control mix and different dosage of silica fume.

slide74

Sorptivity test

Figure 5.2: Comparison of Sorptivity values between control mix and different dosage of Slag.

slide75

Sorptivity test

Figure 5.3: Comparison of Sorptivity values between control mix and different dosage of Slag and silica fume.

slide76

Resistivity test

  • This test is based on the electrical conductivity of concrete.
  • electrolytic process that takes place by the movements of ions in the cement matrix.
  • This ionic movement will take place when contaminants such as chloride ions or carbon dioxide are introduced into the cement mortar matrix.
  • A highly permeable concrete will have a high conductivity and low electrical resistance.
slide78

Resistivity test

The concrete resistivity was considered to be a measure on how the concrete would protect the steel reinforcement against corrosion.

Table 5.5.1: Resistivity Limits

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