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D ESIGN O F H IGH P ERFORMANCE C ONCRETE ( HPC ) M IXTURE I N A GRESSIGE E NVIRONMENT PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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D ESIGN O F H IGH P ERFORMANCE C ONCRETE ( HPC ) M IXTURE I N A GRESSIGE E NVIRONMENT. United Arab Emirates University College of Engineering Civil and Environmental Engineering Department Graduation Project II. Prepared by: Saeed Khamis Al Haddadi 200203853

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D ESIGN O F H IGH P ERFORMANCE C ONCRETE ( HPC ) M IXTURE I N A GRESSIGE E NVIRONMENT

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D esign o f h igh p erformance c oncrete hpc m ixture i n a gressige e nvironment l.jpg

DESIGN OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE (HPC) MIXTURE IN AGRESSIGE ENVIRONMENT

United Arab Emirates University College of EngineeringCivil and Environmental Engineering DepartmentGraduation Project II

Prepared by:

SaeedKhamis Al Haddadi200203853

Nayel Rashid Al Shamsi200216968

MansourMohd Al Shebli200204979

SaeedNahyan Al Ameri 200204458

MuathMohd Al Mazrooei200205340

Adviser’s name:

Dr. Amr S. El Dieb

2st Semester 2007/2008


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Outlines…

Introduction

Objective

Mix Design Methods

Experiment and Testing

Gant Chart


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  • Introduction…

  • HPC is defined as concrete which meets special performance and uniformity requirements that cannot always be achieved by using only the conventional materials

  • Concrete is composed principally of aggregates, Portland cements, water, and may contain other cementations materials and/or chemical admixtures.


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  • Introduction…

  • The selection of concrete proportions involves a balance between economy and requirements for place ability, strength, durability, and density (i.e. its performance).

  • HPC is characterized by its high performance in any of its properties or characteristics

  • Usually the term HPC is used to define high durable concrete (i.e. concrete characterized by high durability)


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Impact

Concrete

Environment

Impact

Concrete

Environment

Resistance

Deterioration

Durable Concrete

(HPC)

  • Introduction…

  • The required durability characteristics are governed by the application of concrete and by conditions expected to be encountered at the time of placement. These characteristics should be listed in the job specifications.


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Objective…

  • The effect of different SCM with various dosages on HPC mixes will be evaluated for various aggressive environments.

  • Different concrete mix design methods will be implemented and compared to design HPC mixes.

  • Control concrete mix will be designed having a compressive strength of 40 to 50 MPa, slump between 100 – 120 mm and the cement content is 350 kg/m3.


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Mix Design Methods…

  • There are two well known mix design methods implemented by various codes :

  • BS 8328 mix design method.

  • ACI 211.1-91 mix design method.


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Mix Design Criteria

  • To perform a concrete mix design several criteria (i.e inputs) are needed together with the properties of the used materials

  • The criteria needed includes:

    • Required strength

    • Required slump

    • Minimum cement content

  • Properties of available or used materials; investigated in GPI


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BS Method

Approximate compressive strength (N/mm2) of concrete mixes made with a free water/cement ratio 0.5


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BS Method..

Relationship between compressive strength and free water-/cement ratio

From this graph w/c ratio is determined for the required strength

47

0.47


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BS Method

Approximate free water content (Kg/m3) required to give various levels of workability.

Slump is adjusted by admixture dosage


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BS Method

Estimated wet density of fully compacted concrete to calculate the aggregate quantity

2420

170


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BS Method

Determines the mixing ratio of fine and coarse aggregates depending on the grading zone of the fine aggregate (1,2,3 &4)


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BS Method…

35%


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ACI Method…

Relationship between water-cement or water- cementations

materials ratio and compressive strength of concrete


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ACI Method…

Approximate mixing water and air content requirements for different slumps and nominal maximum sizes of aggregates


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ACI Method

Volume of coarse aggregate per unit of volume of concrete


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Discussion

  • After we used two methods we found ACI method is not appropriate to design our control mix because the maximum strength we can design using this method is 34 MPa and it is using cylinder not cube so BS method is used.

  • Also there isn’t any mix design method which considers the incorporation of supplementary materials such as Slag and Silica fume.

  • Typical concrete mix used in the country is designed using material investigated in GPI.


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Criteria for mix design

  • Parameters:

    • Silica fume

    • Slag

    • Combination of silica fume and slag

  • Many ready mix company in my country used silica fume in range of 8% and slag in range of 40% to 60% of cement content.

  • We will use 5% , 8%, and 15% of silica fume to make comparison between it.

  • Also we will used 25%,40% and 60% of slag to compare between it.

  • In addition, we will study the ternary blends ( silica fume and slag ).


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    Criteria for mix design

    Strength 40-50 MPa

    Slump 100- 120 mm“ controlled by admixture

    C.C. at least 350 kg/m3

    Mix Proportions/ m3

    Batch Quantities


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    EXPERMINT AND TESTING


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    Introduction

    SCM

    • SCM usually works in two ways:

    • As microfilling materials i.e. physical effect (in early stages)

    • Pozzolanic materials (in late stages)

    Microfilling Effect (Physical effect)


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    Pozzolanic Reaction

    SCM in finely divided form provides a source of reactive silica that in the presence of moisture will combine with CH to form C-S-H and other cementing.

    Typically slow down hydration, but significantly improve durability and long-term strength

    Introduction


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    Pozzolanic Reaction

    2C3S + 6H  C-S-H + 3CH

    2C2S + 4H  C-S-H + CH

    CH + SCM + H  C-S-H

    Introduction


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    Hydration of C3S & C2S

    Introduction

    CH

    C-S-H


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    SCM Material

    Silica Fume

    Result of the reduction of high-purity quartz with coal in an electric arc furnace in the manufacture of silicon or ferrosilicon alloy.

    Have large surface area


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    Slag

    Made from iron blast-furnace slag.

    It is a non-metallic hydraulic cement consisting essentially of silicates and alumino-silicates of calcium.

    SCM Material


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    Mixes

    Batch Quantities


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    Lab strategy

    Batching Strategy

    Table 4.2.1


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    Lab strategy

    • Testing Strategy

    Table 4.2.2


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    Laboratory


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    Laboratory


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    Laboratory


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    Laboratory


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    Laboratory


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    Testing

    We did four type of tests which are:

    • Compressive Strength (Cube Test):

      • Normal compressive strength

      • Compressive Strength in Sulfate Solution

    • Tensile Strength.

    • Sorptivity Test.

    • Resistivity Test


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    Normal compressive strength

    Compressive Strength

    10 cm

    10 cm

    10 cm


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    Normal compressive strength

    Figure 5.4: Compressive strength at 7, 28 and 56 days for different dosage of silica fume


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    Normal compressive strength

    Figure 5.5: Compressive strength at 7, 28 and 56 days for mixes with different dosage of slag


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    Normal compressive strength

    Figure 5.6: Compressive strength at 7, 28 and 56 days for mixes combination with slag and silica fume in different dosage.


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    100 Liter with 5% NaSO4

    Water heater


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Silica fume effect:

    Table 5.3.1.1: Test results for different percentage of SF


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Silica fume effect:

    Figure 5.7: Effect of sulfate solution on cube strength in ambient temperature for mixes with different SF dosage


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Silica fume effect:

    Figure 5.8: Effect of high temperature sulfate solution on cube strength for mixes with different dosage of SF


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Silica fume effect:

    Table 5.3.1.2: Reduction in strength at different immersion periods for different percentages of Silica Fume


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Silica fume effect:

    Figure 5.9:

    Difference in strength between hot results and ambient for differ percentages of SF in sulfate solution


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Slag effect:

    Table 5.3.2.1: Test results for different percentage of Slag


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Slag effect:

    Figure 5.10: Effect of ambient temperature sulfate exposure on mixes with different Slag contents


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Slag effect:

    Figure 5.11: Effect of high temperature sulfate exposure on mixes with different Slag contents


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Slag effect:

    Table 5.3.2.2: Reduction in compressive strength for slag mixes in sulfate solution


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Slag effect:

    Figure 5.12: Difference in strength between hot results and ambient for differ percentages of Slag in sulfate solution


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Combined slag & silica fume:

    Table 5.3.3.1: Test results for different percentage of Slag and Silica Fume


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Combined slag & silica fume:

    Figure 5.13: Effect of high temperature sulfate exposure on mixes with combined slag and silica fume with different contents


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Combined slag & silica fume:

    Figure 5.14: Effect of ambient temperature sulfate exposure on mixes with different Slag and Silica Fume contents


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Combined slag & silica fume:

    Table 5.3.3.2: Reduction in compressive strength for combined slag and silica fume mixes in sulfate solution.


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Combined slag & silica fume:

    Figure 5.15: Difference in strength between hot results and ambient for differ percentages of Slag and Silica Fume in sulfate solution


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Strength Reduction:

    Table 5.3.4.1: Reduction in compressive strength for combined slag and silica fume mixes in sulfate solution


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    Compressive strength in sulfate solution

    Strength Reduction:

    Figure 16: Strength reduction at 56 age


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    2*Failure Load (N)

    π*200*100

    Ft =

    Tensile strength

    Splitting tensile Strength

    10 cm

    20 cm


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    Tensile strength

    Table 5.4.1: Test results at 7 & 28 days of age


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    Tensile strength

    Figure 5.18: Splitting tensile strength for silica fume mixes.


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    Tensile strength

    Figure 5.19: Splitting tensile strength for slag mixes.


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    Tensile strength

    Figure 5.20:

    Splitting tensile strength for combine slag & silica fume mixes.


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    Sorptivity test

    ASTM C 1585; Sorptivity Test

    This test is based on the Hall’s theory and adopted in ASTM recently

    Require a concrete disc of at least 300gm weight

    Concrete specimens are oven dried

    The specimen’s sides are sealed using any sealant

    One surface of the specimen is exposed to water and the change in weight with time is measured (at least 5 measurements) over 30 minutes period

    Plot the graph between penetration depth (i) and square root of time (time1/2) to calculate Sorptivity


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    Surface sealant

    (electrical vinyl tape)

    Container

    Water

    Concrete

    Specimen

    Circular support

    Sorptivity test


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    Sorptivity test


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    Constant

    Exposure time (min)

    Penetration depth (mm)

    Rate of Absorption

    i.e. Sorptivity (mm/min1/2)

    Sorptivity test

    • One dimensional flow through partially saturated concrete can be expressed using Hall’s expression


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    i

    Slope = Sorptivity (S) mm/min1/2

    Constant = A

    Time1/2

    Sorptivity test

    Change in specimen weight (gm)

    Cross sectional area (mm2)

    Water density (gm/mm3)


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    Sorptivity test

    Specimen Location and Code = C1-1

    Specimen Diameter (mm) = 100 mm


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    Sorptivity test

    Table 5.1.1: Average Sorptivity test value at 28 and 56 days of age


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    Sorptivity test

    Figure 5.1: Comparison of Sorptivity values between control mix and different dosage of silica fume.


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    Sorptivity test

    Figure 5.2: Comparison of Sorptivity values between control mix and different dosage of Slag.


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    Sorptivity test

    Figure 5.3: Comparison of Sorptivity values between control mix and different dosage of Slag and silica fume.


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    Resistivity test

    • This test is based on the electrical conductivity of concrete.

    • electrolytic process that takes place by the movements of ions in the cement matrix.

    • This ionic movement will take place when contaminants such as chloride ions or carbon dioxide are introduced into the cement mortar matrix.

    • A highly permeable concrete will have a high conductivity and low electrical resistance.


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    Resistivity test


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    Resistivity test

    The concrete resistivity was considered to be a measure on how the concrete would protect the steel reinforcement against corrosion.

    Table 5.5.1: Resistivity Limits


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    Resistivity test


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    Resistivity test


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    Resistivity test


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    Conclusion


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    Gant Chart


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