Workplace studies with software teams
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Workplace studies with software teams. Integrating Agile development with User Experience design Jennifer Ferreira [email protected] Helen Sharp, Hugh Robinson. Outline. Integrating Agile development with UX design. Outline. Integrating Agile development with UX design

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Workplace studies with software teams

Integrating Agile development

with User Experience design

Jennifer Ferreira

[email protected]

Helen Sharp, Hugh Robinson


Outline

  • Integrating Agile development with UX design


Outline

  • Integrating Agile development with UX design

    • Problem?


Outline

  • Integrating Agile development with UX design

    • Problem?

  • Workplace studies


Outline

  • Integrating Agile development with UX design

    • Problem?

  • Workplace studies

  • Achieving integration


Outline

  • Integrating Agile development with UX design

    • Problem?

  • Workplace studies

  • Achieving integration

  • Implications


Intro

Agile development + UX design


Agile development

XP Scrum FDD ASD


*Design

  • interaction design [Patton 2002a]

  • usage centered design [Patton 2002b]

  • discount usability engineering [Kane 2003]

  • rapid contextual design [Beyer et al. 2004]

  • user experience design [Hodgetts 2005]

  • user centered design [Miller 2005]

  • scenario-based design [Lee and McCrickard 2007]

  • goal-directed design [Cho 2009]


User Experience (UX) Design

  • ISO CD 9241-210

  • “all aspects of the user’s experience when interacting with the product, service, environment or facility.”


User Experience (UX) Design

indicative of the collection of methods, tools, techniques, etc. for involving and maintaining focus on the end user in software development

  • - understand users

  • - design

  • - evaluate


User Experience (UX) Design

WORK

indicative of the collection of methods, tools, techniques, etc. for involving and maintaining focus on the end user in software development

  • - understand users

  • - design

  • - evaluate


Combination

Agile development + UX design


Debates

  • The place of UX design in Agile development

  • When what happens


Debates

  • The place of UX design in Agile development

  • When what happens

    • - Up front

    • - In the Agile iterations


Debates

  • The place of UX design in Agile development

  • When what happens

    • - Up front  BDUF

    • - In the Agile iterations


Debates

  • The place of UX design in Agile development

  • When what happens

    • - Up front  BDUF

    • - In the Agile iterations

BAD


Debates

  • The place of UX design in Agile development

  • When what happens

    • - Up front  BDUF

    • - In the Agile iterations  too short

BAD


Debates

  • The place of UX design in Agile development

  • When what happens

    • - Up front  BDUF

    • - In the Agile iterations  too short

BAD

BAD


Simplistic view

comparisons of values and principles  process

e.g. both Agile and UX are iterative

and both focus on the customer/end user


Simplistic view

“The two-track organization is what we aimed for, although in reality it was a little more complex. Some designs needed longer than a single cycle to complete. For example, one particularly troublesome feature took us over 5 cycles before the design passed all of its goals.”

Lynn Miller, "Case Study of Customer Input For a Successful Product," Agile Development Conference, pp. 225-234, Agile Development Conference (ADC'05), 2005.


Workplace studies

PhD thesis


How are Agile development and UX design combined?

  • How is integration accomplished on a day-to-day basis?

    • Singer et al. “… little is known about how software engineers perform their work. In order to improve software engineering tools and practice, it is therefore essential to conduct field studies, i.e., to study real practitioners as they solve real problems.”

    • Janice Singer, Susan E. Sim, and Timothy C. Lethbridge (2008) Software Engineering Data Collection for Field Studies. Guide to Advanced Empirical Software Engineering. Forrest Shull, Janice Singer, Dag I.K. Sjøberg Editors. Pages 9—34, ISBN-13: 978-1-84800-043-8.


How are Agile development and UX design combined?

  • How is integration accomplished on a day-to-day basis?

    • Only 4 of 23 empirical studies included observations of practice in work settings


How are Agile development and UX design combined?

  • How is integration accomplished on a day-to-day basis?

    • Only 4 of 23 empirical studies included observations of practice in work settings

    •  Study practitioners in the workplace


Workplace studies


Workplace studies


Same same but different

  • all three organisations

  • successful at delivering software

  • highly valued UX design

  • used Scrum

    different experiences of practice


Same same but different

  • all three organisations

  • successful at delivering software

  • highly valued UX design

  • used Scrum

    different experiences of practice

  • the best way to create software


How are Agile development and UX design combined?

  • Integration

    • On-going – negotiated, day-to-day, individuals

    • Achieved – variety of conditions:

      • Developers and designers were kept apart

      • Developers and designers were working closely together

      • Developer designers were trialling working closely together


Integration as…

  • Expectations about acceptable behaviour

  • Mutual awareness

  • Negotiating progress

  • Engaging with each other


Integration as…

  • Expectations about acceptable behaviour

  • Mutual awareness

  • Negotiating progress

  • Engaging with each other


Expectations about acceptable behaviour

  • expectations about how the other group behaves

    • what developers expect

      • -- due to Scrum commitments

    • what UX designers expect

      • -- due to UX design commitments


Expectations about acceptable behaviour

“Could we have a

meeting to give you

some feedback?”

“What kind of feedback

do you want to give?”

designers: expected

to hand over designs

and move onto the

next project

developers: expected

to provide feedback as issues arose

developers: expected

designers to provide

timely redesigns

designers: not expecting on-going conversations

Apart


Expectations about acceptable behaviour

“Which would be

easier to

implement?”

“Either would

be fine.”

designers: expected developer to answer their questions

developer: expected

that the designers

would have

questions

designers: expected that the developercould answer their questions

designers: expected

developer to have useful input

Together


Integration as…

  • Expectations about acceptable behaviour

  • Mutual awareness

  • Negotiating progress

  • Engaging with each other


Mutual awareness

  • UX designers being aware of what constitutes work for Agile developers

  • Agile developers being aware of what constitutes work for UX designers

  • levels vary between the teams


Mutual awareness

“Are the designs

ready?”

“We're moving desks

today.”

Agile developers and UX designers seated on different floors

rigid role boundaries

Agile developers and

UX designers on separate teams

tense

Apart


Mutual awareness

fluid role boundaries

bonded team

on-going conversations

relaxed

Together


Integration as…

  • Expectations about acceptable behaviour

  • Mutual awareness

  • Negotiating progress

  • Engaging with each other


Negotiating progress

  • Maintaining workflow under uncertainty

    • client expectations? (market, dependencies on other projects)

    • requirements

  • decision-makers are not always available

  • teams make progress in spite of this – they HAVE to


Negotiating progress

“Could we have a

meeting to give you

some feedback?”

“What kind of feedback

do you want to give?”

reluctant

phased

formal

a set of activities

constrained

Apart


Negotiating progress

“What do you

remember from

the client meeting?”

“I think they wanted

more pop.”

on-the-fly

informal

agreed together

Together


Integration as…

  • Expectations about acceptable behaviour

  • Mutual awareness

  • Negotiating progress

  • Engaging with each other


Engaging with each other

  • developers and designers do 2 types of work:

    • own

    • together

  • input

    • decision-making

    • expertise

switch


Engaging with each other

“Could we have a

meeting to give you

some feedback?”

“What kind of feedback

do you want to give?”

explicit

require design expertise to proceed

designers leading, developers releasing software

developers approaching designers

Apart


Engaging with each other

“What do you

remember from

the client meeting?”

“I think they wanted

more pop.”

implicit

status updates

solution is negotiated

clarifications

Together


Achieving integration

  • Systematic, separatist approach

  • walking around, finding

  • meetings, logistics

  • communicating via documents, up to date

“Are the designs

ready?”

“We're moving desks

today.”

Apart


Achieving integration

  • Subtle, on-going effort

  • shared awareness of design values and technical constraints

  • shared decision-making

Together


Findings

  • Not just about process

  • Teams are not isolated

  • Not just about seating the developers with designers (i.e. colocation)

  • Integration is shaped by organisational and team-level factors

    •  views on how best to create software


Implications

  • views on how best to create software

  • Implications

    • for processes and tools

    • team arrangements


Implications: processes and tools

  • Supporting and maintaining

    • expectations about acceptable behaviour

    • mutual awareness

    • negotiating progress

    • engaging with each other


Implications: team arrangements

  • Not about co-location

  •  working closely together

  •  achieved in different ways

    • Valuing input from different roles

    • Enabling roles to work together

    • Understanding and sharing responsibilities


thank you


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