What the matters are made out of ?
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What the matters are made out of ?. electrons ( e ). proton ( p ). w ater ( H 2 O ). 3 quarks. o xygen atom ( O ). neutron ( n ). 3 quarks. http :// atlas.kek.jp/public/HiggsCERNOpenDays_A4.pdf (or _each.pdf or _each.pptx). d. Quarks are very strange !!. u. u. u.

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W ater h 2 o

What the matters are made out of ?

electrons(e)

proton (p)

water

(H2O)

3 quarks

oxygen atom

(O)

neutron (n)

3 quarks

http://atlas.kek.jp/public/HiggsCERNOpenDays_A4.pdf (or _each.pdf or _each.pptx)


W ater h 2 o

d

Quarks are very strange !!

u

u

u

  • Single quark never come out.

  • They have fractional charges:

  • up quarks

  • down quarks

  • - Strong forces between quarks.

proton

neutron

pion


W ater h 2 o

There are 4 forces in Nature

Electro-

magnetic

Strong>>Weak>>>Gravity

Light, atom, crystal, radio, TV, phone, car, rain, thunder,…..

Sun/star energy, radio activities..

……

Falling apples,

planet motions, satellite…….

Bind quarks and making nucleus

These forces are carried by

Gluons PhotonsW, Z bosons Gravitons


W ater h 2 o

Elements of the Standard Model

Mass


W ater h 2 o

Introduced Spontaneous Symmetry Breakdown (1959)

CERNT-shirt

Y. Nambu

2013

2008

1979

R. Brout&F. Englert, P.Higgs

Found BEH mechanism (1964)

Standard Model

Higgs field f must exist to

generate particle masses.

S.WeinbergA.Salam

QCD of strong interactions (1973)

Proposed Electro-weak theory (1967)


W ater h 2 o

Potential Energy by Higgs field

F=Higgs field

free motion

Glashow-Weinberg-Salam Model

Higgs-electron coupling

Symmetry Breakdown

We are here

h= wave function of Higgs particle

Vacuum expectation value

Mass of electron

Mass of Higgs


W ater h 2 o

g

hot universe

u

Z

Speed of light

g

H

u

H

H

H

cold universe

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

H

Z

H

Sea of the Higgs field

(weak forcesensitive)

H

H

H

H


W ater h 2 o

Sta

SUSY particles may exist ?

SUSY = symmetry between Bosons and Fermions.

Spins of SUSY particles differ from those of SM.

If SUSY particles exist at ~1 TeV, then

3 forces can unify at high energy.

It avoids quantum divergence of Higgs particle mass.

Some SUSY particles can be dark matters.

Standard Model

Super Symmetric Model


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