Water
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Water. The Hydrologic Cycle. “Whiskey’s for drinking, water’s for fighting over.” Western saying. The Critical Need: Water. Global Water. Ocean (Salty) 97.2 % Fresh Water 2.8 % Ice 2.15% Liquid 0.65% Groundwater 0.62% Lakes 0.009% Soil Moisture 0.005% Streams and Rivers 0.001%

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Global water
Global Water

  • Ocean (Salty) 97.2 %

  • Fresh Water 2.8 %

    • Ice 2.15%

    • Liquid 0.65%

      • Groundwater 0.62%

      • Lakes 0.009%

      • Soil Moisture 0.005%

      • Streams and Rivers 0.001%

      • Atmosphere 0.0001%


Why not use sea water
Why Not Use Sea Water?

  • Desalination now provides 1% of world drinking water

  • Distillation (Energy intensive)

  • Passive distillation (Slow, inefficient)

  • Reverse Osmosis (Filters delicate, prone to clogging and contamination)

  • Towing Antarctic Icebergs (Not done yet, but the numbers are promising)



Dams

  • Irrigation

  • Urban water supply

  • Hydroelectric power

  • Flood control

  • Recreation


Impacts of dams
Impacts of Dams

  • Human dislocation

  • Habitat Destruction

    • Terrestrial

    • Aquatic

    • Disruption of natural cycles

  • Sediment Starvation

  • Increased Evaporation

  • Conflict

    • Division of Water

    • Denial as weapon




















The aral sea1
The Aral Sea

  • Once world’s 4th largest lake

  • Roughly area of Lake Michigan, but only 20% of its volume

  • Complex history of natural diversion and dessication

  • Pleistocene filling from north?

  • Fed only by Syr Darya until Holocene

  • Amu Darya captured ca. 10,000 years ago.










The aral sea disaster
The Aral Sea Disaster

  • Effects

    • < ¼ of original area

    • Destruction of fisheries

    • Respiratory illness from wind-blown salts

  • Solutions?

    • Ideally, stop irrigating

    • Dam off northern lakes and restore

    • Canal from Siberia?





Missed it by that much
Missed It By That Much


That much
That Much



Impacts of groundwater use
Impacts of Groundwater Use

  • Aquifer depletion

  • Lowering of water table

    • Drying of wells

    • Danger to springs and wetlands

  • Invasion of contaminants

  • Ground subsidence


Green bay case study deep aquifers of the green bay area
Green Bay Case Study Deep Aquifers of the Green Bay Area




















Problems in karst landscapes
Problems in Karst Landscapes

  • Extremely fast water (and contaminant) movement

  • Long-range connections

  • Unanticipated connections






High plains ogalalla aquifer
High Plains (Ogalalla) Aquifer

  • 27% of all irrigated land in U.S. overlies aquifer

  • 30% of U.S. ground water used in irrigation comes from this aquifer

  • 80% of the population in the aquifer area rely on it for drinking water

  • Withdrawal = 12 km3/yr = 18 Colorado Rivers




Geology
Geology

  • Pliocene-Miocene sediments (2-6 m.y.)

  • Eroded off Rocky Mountains

  • Open (unconfined) aquifer

  • Depth to water: 30m in S to 130 m in N

  • Original water volume in aquifer about 3900 km3

  • 2005 volume: 3600 km3




















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