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Water. The Hydrologic Cycle. “Whiskey’s for drinking, water’s for fighting over.” Western saying. The Critical Need: Water. Global Water. Ocean (Salty) 97.2 % Fresh Water 2.8 % Ice 2.15% Liquid 0.65% Groundwater 0.62% Lakes 0.009% Soil Moisture 0.005% Streams and Rivers 0.001%

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Water


The Hydrologic Cycle


“Whiskey’s for drinking, water’s for fighting over.”Western saying


The Critical Need: Water


Global Water

  • Ocean (Salty) 97.2 %

  • Fresh Water 2.8 %

    • Ice 2.15%

    • Liquid 0.65%

      • Groundwater 0.62%

      • Lakes 0.009%

      • Soil Moisture 0.005%

      • Streams and Rivers 0.001%

      • Atmosphere 0.0001%


Why Not Use Sea Water?

  • Desalination now provides 1% of world drinking water

  • Distillation (Energy intensive)

  • Passive distillation (Slow, inefficient)

  • Reverse Osmosis (Filters delicate, prone to clogging and contamination)

  • Towing Antarctic Icebergs (Not done yet, but the numbers are promising)


Surface Water, Bosnia


Dams

  • Irrigation

  • Urban water supply

  • Hydroelectric power

  • Flood control

  • Recreation


Impacts of Dams

  • Human dislocation

  • Habitat Destruction

    • Terrestrial

    • Aquatic

    • Disruption of natural cycles

  • Sediment Starvation

  • Increased Evaporation

  • Conflict

    • Division of Water

    • Denial as weapon


Yangtze Gorge


Three Gorges Dam, China


Three Gorges Dam, China


Three Gorges Dam, China


Three Gorges Dam Locks


Three Gorges Dam Locks


Open Spillway


Sierra Foothills, California


O’Shaugnessy Dam, California


O’Shaugnessy Dam, California


O’Shaugnessy Dam, California


Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, California


Owens Valley, California


Mono Lake, California


Tufa Pinnacles, Mono Lake


San Bernardino, California


The Aral Sea


Prehistoric Aral Sea?


The Aral Sea

  • Once world’s 4th largest lake

  • Roughly area of Lake Michigan, but only 20% of its volume

  • Complex history of natural diversion and dessication

  • Pleistocene filling from north?

  • Fed only by Syr Darya until Holocene

  • Amu Darya captured ca. 10,000 years ago.


Aral Sea 1957-2006


Aral Sea 1957-2006


Aral Sea 1957-2006


Aral Sea 1957-2006


Aral Sea 1957-2006


Aral Sea 1957-2006


Aral Sea, 2006


Aral Sea, 2009


The Aral Sea Disaster

  • Effects

    • < ¼ of original area

    • Destruction of fisheries

    • Respiratory illness from wind-blown salts

  • Solutions?

    • Ideally, stop irrigating

    • Dam off northern lakes and restore

    • Canal from Siberia?


Some Places Have Too Much Water


New Orleans


Dangers of Cheap Work


Missed It By That Much


That Much


Aquifers


Impacts of Groundwater Use

  • Aquifer depletion

  • Lowering of water table

    • Drying of wells

    • Danger to springs and wetlands

  • Invasion of contaminants

  • Ground subsidence


Green Bay Case Study Deep Aquifers of the Green Bay Area


Green Bay Groundwater Pumping 1880-1960


Green Bay Water Table 1880-1960


Green Bay Piezometric Surface1957 1960


Green Bay Piezometric Surface1957 2003


Pumping and Water Table


Center-Pivot Irrigation


Center-Pivot Irrigation


The Russian Radioactive Waste Injection Program


The Russian Radioactive Waste Injection Program


Soluble Rocks


Karst, Turkey


Karst, Paraguay


Sinkholes, Bosnia


Sinkhole From Below


Sacred Cenote, Chichen Itza


A Scene From Traditional Chinese Art


Karst, China


Karst in Wisconsin


Problems in Karst Landscapes

  • Extremely fast water (and contaminant) movement

  • Long-range connections

  • Unanticipated connections


Geothermal Systems: Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone


Yellowstone Canyon


San Juan Mountains, Colorado


Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone


High Plains (Ogalalla) Aquifer

  • 27% of all irrigated land in U.S. overlies aquifer

  • 30% of U.S. ground water used in irrigation comes from this aquifer

  • 80% of the population in the aquifer area rely on it for drinking water

  • Withdrawal = 12 km3/yr = 18 Colorado Rivers


High Plains Aquifer


Saturated Thickness 1997


Geology

  • Pliocene-Miocene sediments (2-6 m.y.)

  • Eroded off Rocky Mountains

  • Open (unconfined) aquifer

  • Depth to water: 30m in S to 130 m in N

  • Original water volume in aquifer about 3900 km3

  • 2005 volume: 3600 km3


Drawdown 1980-1995


California Central Valley


Continental Sediment Thickness


Drawdown 1860-1960


Recovery 1960-1976


Land Subsidence


Land Subsidence, Mendota, CA


The Okeefenokee Swamp


The Okeefenokee Swamp


The Okeefenokee Swamp


The Okeefenokee Swamp


The Everglades


Radar Image of South Florida


Airliner View


The Everglades


Mangroves


Limestone in the Making


Diversion Structure, Everglades


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