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Water. The Hydrologic Cycle. “Whiskey’s for drinking, water’s for fighting over.” Western saying. The Critical Need: Water. Global Water. Ocean (Salty) 97.2 % Fresh Water 2.8 % Ice 2.15% Liquid 0.65% Groundwater 0.62% Lakes 0.009% Soil Moisture 0.005% Streams and Rivers 0.001%

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Water

Water


The hydrologic cycle

The Hydrologic Cycle


Whiskey s for drinking water s for fighting over western saying

“Whiskey’s for drinking, water’s for fighting over.”Western saying


The critical need water

The Critical Need: Water


Global water

Global Water

  • Ocean (Salty) 97.2 %

  • Fresh Water 2.8 %

    • Ice 2.15%

    • Liquid 0.65%

      • Groundwater 0.62%

      • Lakes 0.009%

      • Soil Moisture 0.005%

      • Streams and Rivers 0.001%

      • Atmosphere 0.0001%


Why not use sea water

Why Not Use Sea Water?

  • Desalination now provides 1% of world drinking water

  • Distillation (Energy intensive)

  • Passive distillation (Slow, inefficient)

  • Reverse Osmosis (Filters delicate, prone to clogging and contamination)

  • Towing Antarctic Icebergs (Not done yet, but the numbers are promising)


Surface water bosnia

Surface Water, Bosnia


Water

Dams

  • Irrigation

  • Urban water supply

  • Hydroelectric power

  • Flood control

  • Recreation


Impacts of dams

Impacts of Dams

  • Human dislocation

  • Habitat Destruction

    • Terrestrial

    • Aquatic

    • Disruption of natural cycles

  • Sediment Starvation

  • Increased Evaporation

  • Conflict

    • Division of Water

    • Denial as weapon


Yangtze gorge

Yangtze Gorge


Three gorges dam china

Three Gorges Dam, China


Three gorges dam china1

Three Gorges Dam, China


Three gorges dam china2

Three Gorges Dam, China


Three gorges dam locks

Three Gorges Dam Locks


Three gorges dam locks1

Three Gorges Dam Locks


Open spillway

Open Spillway


Sierra foothills california

Sierra Foothills, California


O shaugnessy dam california

O’Shaugnessy Dam, California


O shaugnessy dam california1

O’Shaugnessy Dam, California


O shaugnessy dam california2

O’Shaugnessy Dam, California


Hetch hetchy reservoir california

Hetch Hetchy Reservoir, California


Owens valley california

Owens Valley, California


Mono lake california

Mono Lake, California


Tufa pinnacles mono lake

Tufa Pinnacles, Mono Lake


San bernardino california

San Bernardino, California


The aral sea

The Aral Sea


Prehistoric aral sea

Prehistoric Aral Sea?


The aral sea1

The Aral Sea

  • Once world’s 4th largest lake

  • Roughly area of Lake Michigan, but only 20% of its volume

  • Complex history of natural diversion and dessication

  • Pleistocene filling from north?

  • Fed only by Syr Darya until Holocene

  • Amu Darya captured ca. 10,000 years ago.


Aral sea 1957 2006

Aral Sea 1957-2006


Aral sea 1957 20061

Aral Sea 1957-2006


Aral sea 1957 20062

Aral Sea 1957-2006


Aral sea 1957 20063

Aral Sea 1957-2006


Aral sea 1957 20064

Aral Sea 1957-2006


Aral sea 1957 20065

Aral Sea 1957-2006


Aral sea 2006

Aral Sea, 2006


Aral sea 2009

Aral Sea, 2009


The aral sea disaster

The Aral Sea Disaster

  • Effects

    • < ¼ of original area

    • Destruction of fisheries

    • Respiratory illness from wind-blown salts

  • Solutions?

    • Ideally, stop irrigating

    • Dam off northern lakes and restore

    • Canal from Siberia?


Some places have too much water

Some Places Have Too Much Water


New orleans

New Orleans


Dangers of cheap work

Dangers of Cheap Work


Missed it by that much

Missed It By That Much


That much

That Much


Aquifers

Aquifers


Impacts of groundwater use

Impacts of Groundwater Use

  • Aquifer depletion

  • Lowering of water table

    • Drying of wells

    • Danger to springs and wetlands

  • Invasion of contaminants

  • Ground subsidence


Green bay case study deep aquifers of the green bay area

Green Bay Case Study Deep Aquifers of the Green Bay Area


Green bay groundwater pumping 1880 1960

Green Bay Groundwater Pumping 1880-1960


Green bay water table 1880 1960

Green Bay Water Table 1880-1960


Green bay piezometric surface 1957 1960

Green Bay Piezometric Surface1957 1960


Green bay piezometric surface 1957 2003

Green Bay Piezometric Surface1957 2003


Pumping and water table

Pumping and Water Table


Center pivot irrigation

Center-Pivot Irrigation


Center pivot irrigation1

Center-Pivot Irrigation


The russian radioactive waste injection program

The Russian Radioactive Waste Injection Program


The russian radioactive waste injection program1

The Russian Radioactive Waste Injection Program


Soluble rocks

Soluble Rocks


Karst turkey

Karst, Turkey


Karst paraguay

Karst, Paraguay


Sinkholes bosnia

Sinkholes, Bosnia


Sinkhole from below

Sinkhole From Below


Sacred cenote chichen itza

Sacred Cenote, Chichen Itza


A scene from traditional chinese art

A Scene From Traditional Chinese Art


Karst china

Karst, China


Karst in wisconsin

Karst in Wisconsin


Problems in karst landscapes

Problems in Karst Landscapes

  • Extremely fast water (and contaminant) movement

  • Long-range connections

  • Unanticipated connections


Geothermal systems mammoth hot springs yellowstone

Geothermal Systems: Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone


Yellowstone canyon

Yellowstone Canyon


San juan mountains colorado

San Juan Mountains, Colorado


Old faithful geyser yellowstone

Old Faithful Geyser, Yellowstone


High plains ogalalla aquifer

High Plains (Ogalalla) Aquifer

  • 27% of all irrigated land in U.S. overlies aquifer

  • 30% of U.S. ground water used in irrigation comes from this aquifer

  • 80% of the population in the aquifer area rely on it for drinking water

  • Withdrawal = 12 km3/yr = 18 Colorado Rivers


High plains aquifer

High Plains Aquifer


Saturated thickness 1997

Saturated Thickness 1997


Geology

Geology

  • Pliocene-Miocene sediments (2-6 m.y.)

  • Eroded off Rocky Mountains

  • Open (unconfined) aquifer

  • Depth to water: 30m in S to 130 m in N

  • Original water volume in aquifer about 3900 km3

  • 2005 volume: 3600 km3


Drawdown 1980 1995

Drawdown 1980-1995


California central valley

California Central Valley


Continental sediment thickness

Continental Sediment Thickness


Drawdown 1860 1960

Drawdown 1860-1960


Recovery 1960 1976

Recovery 1960-1976


Land subsidence

Land Subsidence


Land subsidence mendota ca

Land Subsidence, Mendota, CA


The okeefenokee swamp

The Okeefenokee Swamp


The okeefenokee swamp1

The Okeefenokee Swamp


The okeefenokee swamp2

The Okeefenokee Swamp


The okeefenokee swamp3

The Okeefenokee Swamp


The everglades

The Everglades


Radar image of south florida

Radar Image of South Florida


Airliner view

Airliner View


The everglades1

The Everglades


Mangroves

Mangroves


Limestone in the making

Limestone in the Making


Diversion structure everglades

Diversion Structure, Everglades


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