History of public health in developing countries. Framework . Introduction Public Health in India History of services in India History of legislation act History of health education Public Health in China Comparison in health systems in China and India. Public health .
“the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health and efficiency through organized community effort”
CEA Winslow (1920)
1860s and 1870s, Dr. James L. Bryden, India\'s first epidemiologist
Evolution of public health system during the colonial period followed the same path that was followed in Britain.
Restriction of public health efforts to British civilians and military established was a major constraint.
Although, public health efforts were restricted to British civilian and military establishment, they had impact on Indian masses.
Since Bhore Committee, numerous committees were constituted to evolve the public health system.
1951: first five year plan, BCG vaccination launched
1953: National Malaria control program
1954: National Leprosy control program
1955: National Filaria control program
1961: Mudaliar Committee
1978: Alma Ata declaration
1983: National Health Policy approved
1990s: Economic liberalisation
Government spending fell from 1.3% to 0.9% (of GDP)
DOTS pilot project, RCH launched
Beginning of ‘public-private partnerships’
1994: Surat epidemic
India ranks 128 in HDI, malnutrition persists
Public health found to be
Too disease oriented
Too program oriented
lacking in multidisciplinary approach
2003: Tobacco Control legislation
NRHM and JSY
Increasing realization of need for inter-sectoralcoordination
2008: national urban health mission
Non-communicable disease Program
2011: Geriatric Health program launched
Public health foundation of India (PHFI)
In 1881, the first Indian Factories Act was passed and the first all-India census
reform and open policy
development of science and technology and education
the primary health care in China
India and China, the most populous countries in the world, are experiencing rapid economic development and modernization. Both countries have made great strides in public health education systems over the past several decades
China’s public health status is far stronger than India’s and it has benefitted from the universal system developed with barefoot doctors and universal health coverage systems in the last half of the 20th century.
History and Evolution of Public Health Education in India Himanshu Negandhi1, Kavya Sharma2, *Sanjay P. Zodpey Indian Journal of Public Health, Volume 56, Issue 1, January-March, 2012