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Chapter 17, part B. Specific Defenses of the Host: The Immune Response. The Results of Ag-Ab Binding. Figure 17.9. Antibody titer:. Is the amount of Ab in serum. Figure 17.10. Monoclonal Antibodies. Hybridomas are produced by fusing a cancer cell with an Ab-secreting plasma cells

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Chapter 17 part b

Chapter 17, part B

Specific Defenses of the Host:

The Immune Response



Antibody titer
Antibody titer:

  • Is the amount of Ab in serum

Figure 17.10


Monoclonal antibodies
Monoclonal Antibodies

  • Hybridomas are produced by fusing a cancer cell with an Ab-secreting plasma cells

  • The hybridoma cell culture is immortal and produces monoclonal Abs (Mabs)

  • Immunotoxins: Mabs conjugated with a toxin to target cancer cells

  • Chimeric Mabs: Genetically modified mice that produce Ab with a human constant region

  • Humanized Mabs: Mabs that are mostly human, except for mouse antigen-binding


Monoclonal antibodies1
Monoclonal Antibodies

Figure 17.11


Immune system cells communicate via cytokines
Immune system cells communicate via cytokines

  • Interleukin-1 Stimulates TH cells

  • Interleukin-2 Activates TH, B, TC, and NK cells

  • Interleukin-12 Differentiation of CD4 cells

  • -Interferon Increase activity of macrophages

  • Chemokines Cause leukocytes to move to an infection


Cell mediated immunity
Cell-Mediated Immunity

  • Specialized lymphocytes, mostly T cells, respond to intracellular Ags

  • After differentiating in the thymus, T cells migrate to lymphoid tissue

  • T cells differentiate into effector T cells when stimulated by an Ag

  • Some effector T cells become memory cells


Pathogens entering the gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts pass through
Pathogens entering the gastrointestinal or respiratory tracts pass through:

  • M (microfold) cells in Peyer's patches which contains

  • Dendritic cells which are antigen-presenting cells and

  • T cells



T cells
T Cells

  • Helper T Cells (CD4, TH)

    • TH1 Activate cells related to cell-mediated immunity

    • TH2 Activate B cells to produce eosinophils, IgM, and IgE

  • Cytotoxic T Cells (CD8, TC)

    • Destroy target cells with perforin


T cells1
T Cells

  • Delayed Hypersensitivity T Cells (TD)

    • Associated with allergic reaction, transplant rejection, and tuberculin skin test

  • Suppressor T cells (TS)

    • Turn off immune response when Ag no longer present


Helper t cells
Helper T Cells

Figure 17.13



Nonspecific cells
Nonspecific Cells

  • Activated macrophages: Macrophages stimulated by ingesting Ag or by cytokines

  • Natural killer cells: Lymphocytes that destroy virus-infected cells, tumor

Figure 17.15


T independent antigens
T-independent Antigens

B cell

Figure 17.17




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