Fundamentals of Organizing. Organizing arranging the activities of the enterprise in such a way that they systematically contribute to the enterprise’s goals the process of determining how resources are allocated and prepared to accomplish an organization’s mission
Formal pattern of interactions and co-ordination designed by management to link the tasks of individuals and groups in achieving organisational goals.
Layout of jobs and their linkage to one another for the completion of tasks and successful achievement of organizational goals.
M.D., and C.E.O.
Field Mgmt Region 1
Field Mgmt Region 2
In order to make effective, management, communication and control from top to bottom, it is essential that there not too many or very few levels
Factors influencing span of management:
Extent to which power & authority are retained at the top organisational levels.
Extent to which power & authority are delegated to lower levels.
Factors favouring De-centralisation
‘… extent to which power and authority will be retained at upper levels’. Influenced by:
Large size: larger
likely to be more
more dispersed likely to be
decentralised, to enable
control at a number of sites.
with rapid change, need for more
employees to be involved in
responding to challenges.
with more complex
technology,need to devolve
authority to lower levels.
Assignment of part of a manager’s work to others, along with both responsibility & authority necessary to achieve expected results.
Factors restraining delegation
Configuration of line and staff positions:
Authority following the chain of command established by the formal hierarchy.
Authority of staff over others in the organisation in matters related directly to their respective functions e.g. HRM dept.
Linking of activities across departments at similar levels.
Horizontal co-ordination promoted by:
Cushion of resources that facilitates adaptations to internal/external pressures, as well as initiation of changes.
One information source for many users.
Direct contact, liaison roles, task forces, teams.