Self organization in ad hoc networks
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Self Organization in Ad Hoc Networks. BASIL SAEED, ATTA ZAINALDIN Professor: ABDULMOTALEB EL SADDIK Course: ELG 5121 November 26, 2010. Outline. Overview of Ad Hoc Networks Self organization Ad hoc Networks Problems with self organizing ad hoc networks ZRP Protocol

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Self organization in ad hoc networks

Self Organization in Ad Hoc Networks

BASIL SAEED, ATTA ZAINALDIN

Professor: ABDULMOTALEB EL SADDIK

Course: ELG 5121

November 26, 2010


Outline

Outline

  • Overview of Ad Hoc Networks

  • Self organization Ad hoc Networks

  • Problems with self organizing ad hoc networks

  • ZRP Protocol

  • Small World graph phenomenon

    • Terminode Routing

    • Grid Routing

  • Comparison

  • Conclusion

  • References


Ad hoc networks overview

Ad hoc Networks Overview

  • Local area network (LAN) that is built spontaneously as devices connect.

  • Instead of relying on a base station to coordinate the flow of messages to each node in the network, the individual network nodes forward packets to and from each other (act as routers).

  • A network can be integrated with existing infrastructure.


Self organization ad hoc networks

Self Organization Ad hoc Networks

  • Decentralized and Non-authorized networks unlike internet that has specific characteristics:

    • Self-healing - mechanisms that allow to detect, localize, and repair failures automatically; primarily distinguished by the cause of the failure

    • Self-configuration - methods for (re-)generating adequate configurations depending on the current situation in terms of environmental circumstances, e.g. connectivity, quality of service parameters

    • Self-management - capability to maintain devices or networks depending on the current parameters of the system

    • Self-optimization - similar to self-management but focuses on the optimal choice of methods and their parameters based on the system behaviour

    • Adaptation - adaptation to changing environmental conditions, e.g. the changing number of neighbouring nodes

  • Advantages:

    • Scalability


Problems with self organization ad hoc networks

Problems with Self Organization Ad hoc Networks

  • There are some problems that may occur when designing a self

    organized ad hoc network;

    • Configuration

    • Discovery

    • Routing

    • Cooperation incentive

    • Security


Configuration

Configuration

  • DHCP is used in the internet

  • DHCP cannot be used in self organizing networks

  • Using Mobile IP:

    • Designed to allow mobile device users to move from one network to another while maintaining a permanent IP address.

  • Adding care of address capability to DHCP

    • An IP address associated with mobile node that is visiting a foreign link.


Discovery

Discovery

  • A node has to be discovered and located in the network

    Solution:

    1)Global Positioning system (GPS)

    • Bad Signal

      2) A Self Positioning Algorithm (SPA)

    • using the distance between nodes to form a coordinate system which is then used to locate and discover the node.

    • Uses time of arrival to obtain the distance between neighbors


Cooperation

Cooperation

  • Ad hoc networks are highly cooperative

  • Nodes are selfish

    • Nodes tend to use services provided by other nodes, but not to provide services for free to the community

  • There should be a way to:

    • Encourage users to provide services

    • Discourage users to from overloading the network

  • Cooperation incentives, i.e. Nuglet

    • Nuglet: Virtual Currency


Security

Security

  • In self organized networks, the nodes are easy to be attack;

    • The channel is wireless

    • The network is decentralized

  • Solution

    • Node 1 asks for secure communication by send Cipher Suites

    • Node 2 chooses the strongest Cipher and notifies node 1

    • Node 2 send digital certificate

    • Node 1 uses random number to encrypted the public key of node 2

    • Node 2 decrypted the message using its private key

    • From the random number, both node can encrypt and decrypt the data


Routing protocols

Routing Protocols

  • There are two routing protocol categories for ad hoc networks:

    • Proactive Routing Protocols: maintain routing information independently of need for communication i.e. OLSR

    • Reactive Routing Protocol: discover route only when you need itresearchers chose i.e. AODV


Self organization in ad hoc networks

Cont.

  • OLSR Protocol:

    • a HELLO message which is used to discover the information about the link status and the host’s neighbours

    • Topology Control message which is used to send information all over the network about the node’s neighbours


Self organization in ad hoc networks

Cont.

  • Pros.

    • Low latency, suitable for real-time traffic

  • Cons.

    • Bandwidth might get wasted due to periodic updates


Self organization in ad hoc networks

Cont.

  • AODV protocol contains 3 type of messages;

    • Route Request message (RREQ)

    • Route Reply message (RREP)

    • Route Error message (RERR)

  • Source node uses an expanding ring search technique to establish a route to the destination node.

13


Self organization in ad hoc networks

Cont.

  • Pros.

    • Saves energy and bandwidth during inactivity

      • Less overheads which are needed to track the route from the source to destination nodes.

      • It responds fast in the topological changes, and updates only the nodes that are involved in this change using RRER.

    • Cons.

    • Significant delays may occur as a result of route discovery

14


Zone routing protocol

ZoneRoutingProtocol

  • Hybrid routing protocol uses both combination of proactive and reactive routing protocols

  • Uses reactive (inter-zone) and proactive (intra-zone) routing protocols to maintain routes

  • Nodes use intra-zone routing protocol to maintain local routing tables to neighbours

  • Nodes use inter-zone routing protocol to communicate with nodes outside of their zone


Self organization in ad hoc networks

Cont.

Inter Zone Routing

Intra Zone Routing

Zone Radius = 2


How zrp works

How ZRP works

  • If destination is in same zone, the data is delivered directly

  • If in different zone, source broadcasts Route Request to all nodes of its zone

  • If destination is in border node’s zone, border node responds with Route Reply

  • Source forwards data to appropriate border node to reach destination


Self organization in ad hoc networks

Cont.

E

C

G

H

S

D

B

A


Advantages and disadvantages

Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantages:

  • The amount of the data stored in each node is smaller than using a pure table-driven routing resulting in a faster protocol than using a pure reactive routing protocol.

  • Can use single and multipath

    Disadvantages:

  • Large overhead than proactive and reactive protocols

  • If there are many zone overlaps, redundant Route Request messages are flooded through the network (waste of Bandwidth)

  • Large delay due to the procedure of discovering the route from source to destination (reactive/inter-zone)

    • Not applicable for multimedia applications


Regular graph vs random graph

Regular Graph vs. RandomGraph

- Low characteristic path length

- High characteristic path length

- High degree of clustering.

- Low degree of clustering.


Small world graph

Small World Graph

  • Low characteristic path length

  • High degree of clustering.

  • Two types of routing protocols

    which use Small World Graph:

  • Terminode Routing

  • GRID Routing


Terminode routing

Terminode Routing

  • Every Terminode uses two Addresses for Identification:

    1) End System Unique Identifier (EUI): Permanent Address.

    2) Location Dependent Address (LDA): Temporary Address.

    - LDA address is obtained either by:

    a) GPS (Global Positioning System).

    b) No GPS (Self Positioning Algorithm SPA)


Self organization in ad hoc networks

Cont.

  • Packet forwarding is done using two routing categories:

    • Terminode Local Routing (TLR):

      • Uses to reach the destination Distance Vector Intra Zone Routing (Proactive) in ZRP via EUI permanent addresses without using location information

    • Terminode Remote Routing (TRR):

      • Uses to reach the destination the geographical location (LDA), which consists of

        • Friend Assisted Path Discovery (FAPD)

        • Anchored Geodesic Packet Forwarding (AGPF)

        • Path Maintenance

        • Multipath Routing

  • TRR is perform until some node finds destination to be between 2 hops, from there on, only TLR is used


Anchored geodesic packet forwarding agpf

Anchored Geodesic Packet Forwarding (AGPF)

  • Allow data to be sent to remote terminode based on locations of node

  • Data be sent along the Anchored path

    • Anchored path is the route from source to destination and provided with a list of Anchore

    • Anchore point describe the geographical coordinates (LDA)

    • Good Anchore: Path that avoids obstacles and un-useful terminodes from source to destination

S

D


Other elements

Other elements

  • Friend assisted path discovery

    • This method is used to obtain the Anchore paths

    • The Terminode may contact its friends in order to find an Anchored path to the destination of interest

  • Path maintenances

    • Allows a Terminode to improve the acquired paths

  • Multipath routing

    • Maintain several paths to a single destination


Gps and spa

GPS and SPA

  • Global Positioning system (GPS)

    • Nodes know their geo coordinates

    • Route to move packet closer to end point

    • Propagate geo info by flooding

    • Not efficient with bad signals

  • A Self Positioning Algorithm (SPA)

    • Using the distance between nodes to form a coordinate system which is then used to locate and discover the node.

    • Uses time of arrival to obtain the distance between neighbors


Grid routing

GRIDRouting

  • Divide the physical into squares called grids, with increasing the size of the grid

  • Server location: Each Node selects location servers in each of the three sibling squares in each level

  • Ex: Node B selects at :

    • Level 0: 10, 23 and 17, Level 1: 22,33 and 60 and Level 2: 19,21 and 28

Level 0

10

7

44

54

77

47

B

67

22

Location Servers

23

17

45

28

33

80

1

Level 1

88

84

60

44

34

99

27

21

Level 2

19

49

56

26

Level 3

50


Self organization in ad hoc networks

Cont.

  • Packet Forwarding: Sender forwards packets using geographic forwarding to the least node greater than or equal to node desired destination ID.

    • Ex: A sends packets to B using servers located at 26, 19 and 7

10

7

44

54

B

77

47

67

22

23

17

45

28

33

80

1

88

84

60

44

34

27

19

21

26

62

49

56

99

32

50

90

A


Comparison

Comparison

  • GRID

    • Hierarchical routing approach: scalable

    • No GPS: allows position-unaware nodes to use position-aware nodes as proxies

    • Simpler and less information

    • May Fail to find a path to destination

  • Terminode

    • Hierarchical routing approach: scalable

    • No GPS: SPA

    • Complex and more information

    • Always find a path to destination


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Self Organization Ad hoc Networks have some specific characteristics

  • Small world graphs with low characteristic paths and high level of clustering can organize a model for Self Organization Ad hoc Networks

  • Terminode and GRID routing can solve configuration, discovery, and routing problems faced in self configured ad hoc networks

  • When GPS is available, GRID routing is simpler to process.

  • When GPS is not Available, Terminode routing is more robust

    and has less probability of failure.

  • Next step, look for solutions for cooperation and security problems


References

References

[1] Chlamtac I., Conti M., Liu J. J.-N.: "Mobile ad hoc networking: imperatives and challenges". Ad Hoc Networks,Elsevier, Vol. 1, Issue 1, p. 13-64 (2003).

[2] F. Dressler, "Self-Organization in Ad Hoc Networks: Overview and Classification," University of Erlangen, Dept. of Computer Science 7, Technical Report 02/06, March 2006.

[3] L. Buttyán, J.-P. Hubaux, “Nuglets: a Virtual Currency to Stimulate Cooperation in Self-Organized Mobile Ad Hoc Networks,” Technical report No. DSC/2001/001, Swiss Federal Institution of Technology, Lausanne, January 2001. http://icawww.epfl.ch/hubaux/

[4] Zhijiang Chang, G. Gaydadji ev, S. Vassiliadis, "Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad hoc Networks: Current Development and evaluation.“ Computer Engineering laboratory, EEMCS, Delft University of Technology, April 2005.

[5] J.Haas and M. R. Pearlman, "The Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP) for Ad Hoc Networks," IETF Internet Draft, June 1999


Self organization in ad hoc networks

[6] Nature Publishing Grouping. “Collective dynamics of 'small-world' networks“. From http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v393/n6684/full/393440a0.html

[7] L. Blazevic, S. Giordano, J. Y. Le Boudec “Self organized terminode routing simulation“ Proceedings of ACM International Workshop on Modeling Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile systems (MSWiM 2001), Rome, Italy, July 2001

[8] L. Blazevic, S. Giordano, J. Y. Le Boudec "Anchored Path Discovery in Terminode Routing" The Second IFIP-TC6 Networking Conference (Networking 2002) Proceedings, Pisa, May 2002

[9] L. Blazevic, L. Buttyan, S. Capkun, S. Giordano, J. Hubaux, and J. Boudec,”Self-Organization in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks: The Approach of Terminodes,"IEEE Communication Magazine, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 166{174, June 2001.

[10] W.-H. Liao, Y.-C. Tseng, and J.-P. Sheu, “GRID: a fully location-aware routing protocol for mobile ad hoc networks,” Telecommunication Systems, vol. 18,no. 1, pp. 37–60, Sep. 2001.

Cont.


Questions

Questions


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