ancient mesopotamia the land between two rivers
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ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- “THE LAND BETWEEN TWO RIVERS”. ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- DEFINITIONS. CITY STATES- self-governing unit made up of a city and its surrounding villages and farmland. Monotheism: worshiping one god. “Mono” – means one Polytheism: worshiping many gods. “Poly” – means many.

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ancient mesopotamia definitions
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- DEFINITIONS
  • CITY STATES- self-governing unit made up of a city and its surrounding villages and farmland.
  • Monotheism: worshiping one god.
    • “Mono” – means one
  • Polytheism: worshiping many gods.
    • “Poly” – means many
geography
GEOGRAPHY
  • Located between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
  • Present-day Iraq
ancient mesopotamia geography
POSITIVE

abundant amount of clay

easy tillable soil

water supply from Tigris-Euphrates Rivers

NEGATIVE

few natural resources

minimal protection from deserts and mountains

ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- GEOGRAPHY
basic facts
Basic Facts:
  • Settled around 3500 BCE
  • Divided into city-states ---WHY??
  • Region developed first forms of poly - and monotheism
  • Created one of the earliest forms of writing
social
SOCIAL
  • What do you know about the social aspects of Mesopotamian society?
    • Social hierarchy: kings, priests, nobility, merchants, farmers, slaves
    • Slaves - POW
    • Women: unequal to men; men own and inherit land
city states
City-States
  • Always in constant conflict over water and land rights
  • Created walls for protection, with moats along the outside
  • Farms located along the outside of the city
hammurabi s code
Hammurabi’s Code
  • Hammurabi - King of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 BCE)
  • 282 laws.
  • Based on equal retaliation.
  • Laws were varied for the wealthy and powerful.
intellectual contributions
Intellectual Contributions:
  • Wheel
  • Time – 60 minutes in an hour, 60 seconds in a minute
  • 12 month lunar calendar
  • arch
  • ramp
slide12
Polytheistic; gods based on nature; vengeful
  • Ziggurats: pyramid site of the temple of the main gods.
    • Each city-state had their own gods and goddesses
    • Sun god – most important.
  • Life after death was an extension of life.
economy
ECONOMY
  • Make, sell or barter goods.
  • Trade helped expansion.
  • Development of money will evolve over time.
  • POOR
  • Farmers
  • craftsman
  • RICH
  • government officials
  • religious leaders
  • traders
river valley civilizations egypt indus valley and shang china

River Valley Civilizations:Egypt, Indus Valley and Shang China

Unit 1

Foundations, 8000 BCE – 600 BCE

AP World History

objective
Objective
  • To identify the major social, political, cultural and economic features of the Egyptian, Indus and Chinese early civilizations
  • To compare these features to those of all river valley civilizations (Mesopotamia, Egypt, China and India)
  • To create a foundation upon which to study the Classical Civilizations (China, India, Greece, Rome)
foundation and geography
Egypt

3100 BCE – 343 BCE

Unified by King Menes

Nile River

Sahara Desert

Shang China

1750 – 1027 BCE

Yellow River (loess – fertile soil)

Isolated b/c of Gobi desert and Himalayan Mountains and Mongolian Plateau

Very Hot and Dry

Foundation and Geography
  • Indus Valley
    • 2500-1500 BCE
    • Current day northern India and Pakistan
    • Indus River – irregular; had to build flood barriers
    • Khyber Pass
social aspects of river valley civilizations
Egypt

Social structure similar to Mesopotamia

Tax collection heaviest on lower classes

Slaves – POW

Women had most rights here – own property, businesses, no formal education; informally involved in politics

Indus Valley

Unknown class structure b/c can’t read writing

Merchants at top of social structure

Female goddesses worshipped so women may be treated better than in China and Mesopotamia; several fertility goddess statutes found

Eventually gives way to caste system

Social Aspects of River Valley Civilizations
  • China
    • Low social mobility
    • Few slaves – not as many as M. or E. – WHY?
    • Peasants not much better than slaves
    • Palaces for the emperor; dependent on military to help run gov’t so they were given many gifts
    • Strong patriarchal – infanticide
political
China

Dynastic cycles

Kings are descendants or links to gods

King = priest

Isolated towns and villages

Centralized Government

Egypt

Pharaoh

Very strong army focused on expansion of territory and economy (gold, silver, etc) – given to Pharaoh as tribute

Slaves = POW

Priests and Nobles help P. manage empire = Bureaucracy

Dynastic Cycles

Few Female Rulers

Centralized Government

Political
  • Indus Valley
    • No palaces found in ruins
    • Businessmen, Craftsmen and Farmers provided organization and justice for civilization
    • Unified; centralized government
    • Two major cities: Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
interactions
Interactions
  • Mesopotamians trade with India
  • Egyptians trade with Mesopotamia, Nubia and Kush
  • China stays isolated by geography and choice
  • Indus Valley – destroyed by natural disaster or invasion (Indo-Europeans)
  • Slavery – direct result of warfare
  • Interactions b/w Hebrews and Egyptians
cultural
Egypt

Polytheistic, strong belief in afterlife; mummification

Hieroglyphics (Rosetta Stone)

Architecture – Pyramids; Sphinx; Valley of the Tombs; Imhotep

Strong collection of literature, songs, poetry

Egyptian Book of the Dead; Hymn to Aton

Calendar

Math = created system of 10 and geometry

Astronomy

Knowledge of medicine – first heart surgeries

India

Polytheistic (nature goddess)

Public bathing pools

Unable to translate writing

Complex City Organization = grid formation

Advanced Drainage system

Indoor plumbing

Wheels for transportation

Bronze tools and weapons

Cultural

China

  • Mandate of Heaven
  • Middle Kingdom
  • Worshipped ancestors and nature gods
  • Oracle bones – early form of writing; at least 2000 characters or symbols
  • Walled cities
  • Silk clothes; jade and bone jewelry
economics
Economics
  • All civilizations dependent on agriculture for economic gain
  • Some specialization of labor b/c of surplus of food
    • Cloth, pottery, jewelry
    • Architects – Egypt
  • Egypt trades a great deal – Mediterranean World; Nubia and Kush (to South)
  • Merchants – looked down upon by Chinese
questions write a response complete sentences
Questions –Write a response. Complete Sentences
  • How does geography play a role in the development of a civilization? Use examples from Egypt, Mesopotamia, India orChina to support your response
  • What are some things that are similar throughout all 4 (or most of the 4)? Why?
  • List one unique characteristic from each civilization.
  • Complete a SPICE chart for one River-Valley Civilization
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