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Negotiating the Tension between DAP & Skills-Based Instruction in Kindergarten. Sister Mary Karen Oudeans, Ph.D. Silver Lake College, Manitowoc, WI Ben Ditkowsky, Ph.D. Educational Consultant, Chicago, IL. What is Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP)?.

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Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Negotiating the Tension between DAP & Skills-Based Instruction in Kindergarten

Sister Mary Karen Oudeans, Ph.D.

Silver Lake College, Manitowoc, WI

Ben Ditkowsky, Ph.D.

Educational Consultant, Chicago, IL


What is developmentally appropriate practices dap
What is Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP)? Instruction in Kindergarten

  • DAP is based on the assumptions that children can develop without specific intervention and that to provide specific intervention may, in fact, be detrimental to development.

  • DAP is based on the conviction that

    • Early educational experiences and environments are important.

    • Classroom practices following DAP guidelines enhance children’s development and facilitate learning.

    • Superior academic benefits result from DAP practices


A few dap research citations
A few DAP Research Citations Instruction in Kindergarten

  • Bredekamp & Rosegrant, 1992

  • Bredekamp & Copple, 1997

  • Carta, Atwater, Schwartz, & McConnell, 1993

  • Dunn, Beach, Kontos, 1994

  • Hyson, Hirsh-Pasek, Rescola, 1990

  • Kostelnik, 1992

  • Sherman, Mueller, 1996

  • Stipek, Feiler, Daniels, Milburn, 1995


Dap principles
DAP Principles Instruction in Kindergarten

  • Age appropriateness and individualization

  • Student readiness

    • Teaching in the Zone of Proximal Development

  • Integration of curriculum & assessment

  • Importance of active engagement

    c. f. Carta, Atwater, Schwartz, & McConnell, 1993


Misinterpretations of dap
Misinterpretations of DAP Instruction in Kindergarten

  • DAP does not mean teachers don’t teach and the children control the classroom.

  • Classrooms where teachers abdicate responsibility for instruction are NOT developmentally appropriate.

  • Good (DAP) early childhood programs are,

    • Highly organized and

    • Highly structured environments

    • Where teachers have carefully prepared

    • Where teachers are in control

  • (e. g. Bredekamp & Rosegrant, 1992; Kostelnik, 1992)


Statements of naeyc ira regarding reading dap 1998
Statements of NAEYC & IRA regarding Reading & DAP (1998) Instruction in Kindergarten

  • Learning to read and write is a complex, multifaceted process that requires a wide variety of instructional approaches.

  • A DAP model of literacy learning and development is an interactive process.


Statements of nyeac ira regarding dap
Statements of NYEAC & IRA regarding DAP Instruction in Kindergarten

Believes that--

  • Goals and expectations for young children’s achievement in reading and writing should be developmentally appropriate, that is, challenging but achievable, with sufficient adult support.


Naeyc expectations for teachers
NAEYC Expectations for Teachers Instruction in Kindergarten

  • Early Childhood Teachers need to understand and be skilled in

    • The developmental continuum of reading & writing

    • A variety of strategies to assess and support individual children.

    • Setting appropriate literacy goals

    • Adapting instructional strategies


Naeyc expects teachers to
NAEYC Expects Teachers to: Instruction in Kindergarten

  • Frequently read interesting and conceptually rich stories to children

  • Provide daily opportunities for children to write

  • Help children build a sight vocabulary

  • Create a literacy-rich environment for children to engage independently in reading & writing


Naeyc goal for kindergarten
NAEYC Goal for Kindergarten: Instruction in Kindergarten

Children develop basic concepts of print and begin to engage in and experiment with reading and writing


Some key early reading syntheses
Some Key Early Reading Syntheses Instruction in Kindergarten

Adams. M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge,MA: The MIT Press.

Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children.Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Also available on the internet

  • http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.htm


What We Know From This Research Instruction in Kindergarten

  • Children who are at risk of reading disability can be identified as early as kindergarten(Torgesen, Wagner, Rashotte, Alexander, & Conway, 1997), and early intervention is the key.

  • Kindergarten teachers have a brief window to intervene to prevent an escalating pattern of failure.

  • Overall, to change outcomes, we must provide the highest quality instruction available as early as possible.

  • The critical time for instruction = Kindergarten!


Kindergarten instructional targets
Kindergarten Instructional Targets Instruction in Kindergarten

  • Phonological Awareness.

    • The awareness and understanding of the sound structure of our language, that “cat” is composed of the sounds /k/ /a/ /t/.

  • Alphabetic Principle. Based on two parts:

    • Alphabetic Understanding. Words are composed of letters that represent sounds, and

    • Phonological Recoding. Systematically identifying a letter sound and blending the sounds together to retrieve the pronunciation of an unknown printed string or to spell.

  • Automaticity = Fluency

    • The ability to translate letters-to-sounds-to-words fluently and effortlessly


What should kids be able to DO by the end of kindergarten Instruction in Kindergartenthat is most predictive of Success in Reading.

1. Blending

  • Orally blend

    • onset-rime (m - ilk)

    • 2 - 3 separately spoken phonemes into one syllable words. (m-e : me . f - u - n : fun.)

      2. Segmentation

  • Identify the first sound in a 1 syllable word ( bug begins with the sound /b/)

  • Say the individual sounds in 2 to 3 phoneme 1 syllable words (/c/ /a/ /t/)


Teaching big ideas in alphabetic understanding in kindergarten
Teaching Instruction in KindergartenBIG Ideas in Alphabetic Understanding in kindergarten

  • Teach letter & sound blending, segmenting

  • Scaffold the Instruction

    • read and practice

      • first in isolation...

      • then in words...

      • then in connected text

    • begin with most common, high frequency sounds and words

    • teach one item at a time with intensive practice, ... then continue cumulative and distributed practice daily


What should kids be able to do by the end of kindergarten
What should kids be able to DO by the end of kindergarten? Instruction in Kindergarten

Letter - Sound correspondence

  • Identify letters by sound

  • Say the most common sound for letters

    Decoding

  • Blend sounds of letters to READ short words

    Sight-word reading

  • Recognize common sight words

    • (e.g. a, I, is, the, my you, of, are)


Alphabetic understanding research conclusions
Alphabetic Understanding Instruction in KindergartenResearch Conclusions

  • Letter-sound knowledge

    • is prerequisite to effective word identification. The primary difference between good and poor readers is the ability to use letter-sound correspondence to identify words.

  • Students who acquire and apply alphabetic understanding early in their reading careers reap long-term benefits.

  • Teaching students to listen, remember, and process the letter-sound correspondence in words is a difficult, demanding, yet achievable goal with long lasting effects.


Alphabetic understanding research conclusions1
Alphabetic Understanding Instruction in KindergartenResearch Conclusions

  • Combining instruction in phonological awareness and letter-sounds appears to be the most favorable for successful early reading.

  • A whole word strategy, by itself, has limited utility in an orthography based on an alphabet.

  • Awareness of the relation between sounds and their corresponding printed letter can be taught.


So the pressure is on
So-- The “pressure” is on! Instruction in Kindergarten

  • Kindergarten outcomes contribute substantially to first grade reading outcomes.

  • By focusing on early literacy skills and attaining established phonological awareness in kindergarten, the likelihood of successful reading outcomes increases.

  • For students with a deficit in phonological awareness in kindergarten, reading difficulty and reading failure are likely - unless skills are remediated early.


We know from Instruction in Kindergarten previous research

  • It is critical for kindergarten reading instruction to make explicit the connections between print and the sounds of spoken language.

  • How we teach the two component skills of letter-sounds and phonological blending and segmenting is as important to children’s progress in becoming readers as what we teach.


Key questions
Key Questions Instruction in Kindergarten

  • If traditional DAP kindergarten teachers implement a structured, teacher-directed set of instructional lessons will students meet key instructional benchmarks?

  • If kids are successful, will teachers “buy into” the more structured approach?

  • Will the size of the group make a difference

    • whole group instruction (13 –15 children),

    • small group, (6 or fewer children)


Teacher participants

Teachers self-selected to participate: Instruction in Kindergarten

2 teachers in same district

1 teacher from K-5 school in neighboring district

1 teacher volunteered as Control.

She allowed us to assess her students but felt her children were learning what was necessary to meet kindergarten benchmarks.

Teacher Participants


School a
School Instruction in KindergartenA

Intervention group (Whole class instruction)

  • N = 39 children am / pm Kindergarten (2 teachers)

    • 15 minutes of explicit instructional lessons along with early literacy DAP instruction

      Control group (Traditional Kindergarten)

  • N = 26 children in am. / pm (1 teacher)

    • Used early literacy program based on DAP guidelines


School b
School Instruction in KindergartenB

Intervention group (small group instruction)

22 children in am / pm kindergarten (2 teachers)

  • 15 minutes of explicit instructional lessons along with early literacy DAP instruction

  • (5 to 6 children in each group)

Difference from School A:

Children divided into 2 groups, 6 children each. 15-minute lessons taught by classroom teacher & Title 1 teacher.


Teachers philosophy statements
Teachers’ Philosophy Statements Instruction in Kindergarten

  • “I think children learn best by exploring & experiencing many different things in our curriculum, My role should be to set up the activities so the children learn by doing.”

  • “My job…is to take each child from the level they are at when they come into kindergarten and help them reach their highest potential.”

  • “My philosophy generally is to accept children at their current point in development & progress them according to their ability.”


Teachers philosophy statements1
Teachers’ Philosophy Statements Instruction in Kindergarten

  • “My job is to develop the child’s natural curiosity and desire to learn through the provision of meaningful, interesting & age appropriate experiences.”

  • “I believe children learn best through meaningful hands on experiences which allow them to interact with objects, materials, and people in their environment.

  • “The role of the teacher is to systematically model, teach, and design learning situations in which the students learn concepts, skills, and ideas, using a variety of ways…through explicit, implicit, actual hands on experiential instruction. The method of delivery depends on the students and how they learn best.”


Types of literacy activities in dap classrooms
Types of Literacy Activities in DAP Classrooms Instruction in Kindergarten

  • Memorizing letter names & sounds

  • Rhyming games

  • 6-trait writing lessons

  • Phonemic awareness activities that stress variety of skills

  • Phonics lessons focusing on individual letters & sounds and how to blend them

  • Shared reading & writing experiences

  • Independent writing experiences based on real life experiences


Assessment targets and age range
Assessment Targets Instruction in Kindergartenand Age Range

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) were developed by Good and Associates at the University of Oregon to measure and monitor student outcomes of key instructional targets in beginning reading.

Initial Sound


Assessment targets and age range1
Assessment Targets Instruction in Kindergartenand Age Range

Initial Sound

Initial Sound Fluency measures a child’s ability to say the initial sound of a spoken word


Assessment targets and age range2
Assessment Targets Instruction in Kindergartenand Age Range

Initial Sound

Phonemic Segmentation Fluency measures a child’s ability to say all of the sounds in a spoken word


Assessment targets and age range3
Assessment Targets Instruction in Kindergartenand Age Range

Initial Sound

Nonsense Word Fluency measures a child’s ability to say the sounds in; or read “make-believe” words


Initial sound fluency isf
Initial Sound Fluency (ISF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Initial sound fluency
Initial Sound Fluency Instruction in Kindergarten


Initial sound fluency1
Initial Sound Fluency Instruction in Kindergarten


Initial sound fluency2
Initial Sound Fluency Instruction in Kindergarten


Initial sound fluency3
Initial Sound Fluency Instruction in Kindergarten


Initial sound fluency4
Initial Sound Fluency Instruction in Kindergarten


Initial sound fluency5
Initial Sound Fluency Instruction in Kindergarten

We can see that intervention makes a difference for ISF.

But ISF is not a goalin and of itself.


Initial sound fluency and phoneme segmentation fluency
Initial Sound Fluency and Instruction in KindergartenPhoneme Segmentation Fluency


Initial sound fluency6

ISF corresponds with PSF Instruction in Kindergarten

In general:

Children who scored higher in ISF scored higher in PSF as well.

Children who scored lower in ISF scored lower in PSF as well.

Initial Sound Fluency


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf
Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf1
Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf2
Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf3
Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf4
Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf5
Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf6
Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF) Instruction in Kindergarten

We can see that intervention makes a difference for PSF.

But PSF is not a goalin and of itself.


Phonemic segmentation fluency and nonsense word fluency nwf
Phonemic Segmentation Fluency and Instruction in KindergartenNonsense Word Fluency (NWF)


Phonemic segmentation fluency and nonsense word fluency

PSF corresponds with NWF Instruction in Kindergarten

In general:

Children who scored higher in PSF scored higher in NWF as well.

Children who scored lower in PSF scored lower in NWF as well.

Phonemic Segmentation Fluency and Nonsense Word Fluency


Nonsense word fluency nwf
Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) Instruction in Kindergarten


We can see that Instruction in Kindergartenintervention makes a difference for NWF.

But isNWF measuring how well kids can decoderealwords ?

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)


Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF) Instruction in Kindergarten


Word reading generalization
Word Reading Generalization Instruction in Kindergarten


Word reading generalization1
Word Reading Generalization Instruction in Kindergarten

How many untrained words should a kindergarten student read in a minute?

The DAP answer is:

As many as they can.

How many words can they read?


Word reading generalization2
Word Reading Generalization Instruction in Kindergarten

Using a structured program does not look like it is detrimental to academic development

in fact, it appears to facilitate early reading ability!


What does this mean for individual children
What does this mean for individual Children? Instruction in Kindergarten

Remember DAP Guidelines for teaching

Age appropriateness and individualization

Student readiness

Teaching in the Zone of Proximal Development

Integration of curriculum & assessment

Importance of active engagement


Based on ISF in October of Kindergarten we predicted these students in the DAP classroom would not be able to read

Control Group: Typical predicted non - readers (based on ISF)

60

50

40

Phonemes per minute

30

20

10

0

0PSF

1PSF

2PSF

3PSF

4PSF

Session For PSF Assessment


And in may children with low isf in october couldn t read words like mop him run
…and in May, students in the (Children with Low ISF in October)couldn’tread words like:mop, him, run…


Based on ISF in October of Kindergarten we predicted these students in the DAP classroomwould be able to read

Control Group: Typical predicted readers (based on ISF)

60

50

40

Phonemes per minute

30

20

10

0

0PSF

1PSF

2PSF

3PSF

4PSF

Session For PSF Assessment


And in may they read an average of about 4 or 5 words per minute
And in May, they read an average of about 4 or 5 words per minute.

Control Group: Typical predicted readers (based on ISF)

60

Wd Rdg Gen

50

25

24

23

22

21

40

20

19

18

17

16

15

Words read per minute

14

Phonemes per minute

30

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

20

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

10

1

2

Student

0

0PSF

1PSF

2PSF

3PSF

4PSF

Session For PSF Assessment


Based on ISF in October of Kindergarten we predicted these students in the DAP classroomwould be able to read

Control Group: Typical predicted readers (based on ISF)

60

50

40

Phonemes per minute

30

20

10

0

0PSF

1PSF

2PSF

3PSF

4PSF

Session For PSF Assessment


Does dap meet individuals at the zone of proximal development
Does DAP meet individuals at the Zone of Proximal Development?

Control Group: Typical predicted readers (based on ISF)

60

Wd Rdg Gen

They had the skill in segmentation

50

25

24

23

22

21

40

20

19

18

17

16

They could not read, even though they were ready to read!

15

Words read per minute

14

Phonemes per minute

30

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

20

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

10

1

2

Student

0

0PSF

1PSF

2PSF

3PSF

4PSF

Session For PSF Assessment


Based on ISF in October of Kindergarten we predicted these students in the WHOLE CLASSIntervention ClassroomwouldNOTbe able to read



Based on ISF in October of Kindergarten we predicted these students in the WHOLE CLASSIntervention Classroomwouldbe able to read


Based on ISF in October of Kindergarten we predicted these students in the Small GroupIntervention ClassroomwouldNOTbe able to read

3 of 4 children made it to criterion levels on PSF



October isf predicted reading and
October ISF predicted reading and… students in the

ByMaythey could read.


Basic components of lesson sequence
Basic Components students in the of Lesson Sequence

Activity 1: Letter Names and Sounds

  • Sequence: a, m, t, s, i, f, d, r, o, p, n, l, c, b, u, g, h, x, e, v, j, w, k, y, z, q

  • The more useful letters are introduced first.

  • The most common sound is taught

  • Letter names and sounds are introduced simultaneously. “The name of this letter is __. The sound for this letter is /----/.”


Basic components of lesson sequence1
Basic Components students in the of Lesson Sequence

  • Activity 2: Phonemic Blending & Segmenting

  • auditory blending and segmenting

    • separate activities within the same lesson

    • combined after children are able to segment words correctly into individual sounds

  • 4 - 6 words are used in each instructional cycle.

  • Words contain sounds that were taught previously or will be taught in the following cycle (e.g., am, mat, sam)


Basic components of lesson sequence2
Basic Components students in the of Lesson Sequence

  • Activity 3: Strategic Integration

  • only words that children have been taught to blend and segment in earlier cycles.

  • a blank tiles represent a phoneme when the letter name and sound is first introduced.

  • manipulative letters are used after the letter name and sound are taught & reviewed.

  • Word Cards replace letter cards.


Instructional design features
Instructional Design students in the Features

  • Carefully sequenced examples, practice, corrective feedback, and review

  • Clear, unambiguous strategies for teaching phonological blending & segmenting skills, letter names & sounds

  • Clear, unambiguous strategies for making explicit connections between the sounds in words and letters in words


Answers and directions
Answers and Directions students in the

  • If traditional DAP kindergarten teachers implement a structured, teacher-directed set of instructional lessons will students meet key instructional benchmarks?

    Yes

    But teacher effectiveness depends on teacher knowledge and skill.


Answers and directions1
Answers and Directions students in the

If kids are successful, will teachers “buy into” the more structured approach?

Not necessarily, even when presented with increased student performance teacher reports vary.

T1: “It is hard for me to follow a set list of words…Explicit instruction is necessary but 15 minutes is too much” [will not repeat the program]

T2: “I will use parts but not on a continuous basis”

T3: “At first the children did not like reading… hard for them to concentrate… it taught them a system to use when [reading]… as they learned to read their attitude changed toward [ the program]”


Answers and directions2
Answers and Directions students in the

  • Will the size of the group make a difference

    • whole group instruction (13 –15 children),

    • small group, (6 or fewer children)

      Yes, statistically and educationally significant differences on multiple indicators.


No child left behind education act 2001
No Child Left Behind students in the Education Act 2001

  • Commitment to “everychild can read by the end of third grade”

  • Focus is on scientifically basedearly reading interventions and achieving results for all children

  • Schools, districts that fail to make adequate yearly progress toward statewide proficiency goals subject to improvement, corrective action plans to get “them back on course.”

  • Key words—prevention, early identification, and early intervention


Implications for instruction
Implications for instruction students in the

Balance can work

  • Structured, carefully sequenced instruction in key target areas results in higher gains, than attempts to catch kids at their individual ZPD with DAP instruction alone.

  • Use connected, decodable text facilitates early word reading.

  • Print rich environments, and interesting stories to can facilitate the development of oral language and comprehension.


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