Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten
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Negotiating the Tension between DAP & Skills-Based Instruction in Kindergarten. Sister Mary Karen Oudeans, Ph.D. Silver Lake College, Manitowoc, WI Ben Ditkowsky, Ph.D. Educational Consultant, Chicago, IL. What is Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP)?.

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Negotiating the Tension between DAP & Skills-Based Instruction in Kindergarten

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Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Negotiating the Tension between DAP & Skills-Based Instruction in Kindergarten

Sister Mary Karen Oudeans, Ph.D.

Silver Lake College, Manitowoc, WI

Ben Ditkowsky, Ph.D.

Educational Consultant, Chicago, IL


What is developmentally appropriate practices dap

What is Developmentally Appropriate Practices (DAP)?

  • DAP is based on the assumptions that children can develop without specific intervention and that to provide specific intervention may, in fact, be detrimental to development.

  • DAP is based on the conviction that

    • Early educational experiences and environments are important.

    • Classroom practices following DAP guidelines enhance children’s development and facilitate learning.

    • Superior academic benefits result from DAP practices


A few dap research citations

A few DAP Research Citations

  • Bredekamp & Rosegrant, 1992

  • Bredekamp & Copple, 1997

  • Carta, Atwater, Schwartz, & McConnell, 1993

  • Dunn, Beach, Kontos, 1994

  • Hyson, Hirsh-Pasek, Rescola, 1990

  • Kostelnik, 1992

  • Sherman, Mueller, 1996

  • Stipek, Feiler, Daniels, Milburn, 1995


Dap principles

DAP Principles

  • Age appropriateness and individualization

  • Student readiness

    • Teaching in the Zone of Proximal Development

  • Integration of curriculum & assessment

  • Importance of active engagement

    c. f. Carta, Atwater, Schwartz, & McConnell, 1993


Misinterpretations of dap

Misinterpretations of DAP

  • DAP does not mean teachers don’t teach and the children control the classroom.

  • Classrooms where teachers abdicate responsibility for instruction are NOT developmentally appropriate.

  • Good (DAP) early childhood programs are,

    • Highly organized and

    • Highly structured environments

    • Where teachers have carefully prepared

    • Where teachers are in control

  • (e. g. Bredekamp & Rosegrant, 1992; Kostelnik, 1992)


Statements of naeyc ira regarding reading dap 1998

Statements of NAEYC & IRA regarding Reading & DAP (1998)

  • Learning to read and write is a complex, multifaceted process that requires a wide variety of instructional approaches.

  • A DAP model of literacy learning and development is an interactive process.


Statements of nyeac ira regarding dap

Statements of NYEAC & IRA regarding DAP

Believes that--

  • Goals and expectations for young children’s achievement in reading and writing should be developmentally appropriate, that is, challenging but achievable, with sufficient adult support.


Naeyc expectations for teachers

NAEYC Expectations for Teachers

  • Early Childhood Teachers need to understand and be skilled in

    • The developmental continuum of reading & writing

    • A variety of strategies to assess and support individual children.

    • Setting appropriate literacy goals

    • Adapting instructional strategies


Naeyc expects teachers to

NAEYC Expects Teachers to:

  • Frequently read interesting and conceptually rich stories to children

  • Provide daily opportunities for children to write

  • Help children build a sight vocabulary

  • Create a literacy-rich environment for children to engage independently in reading & writing


Naeyc goal for kindergarten

NAEYC Goal for Kindergarten:

Children develop basic concepts of print and begin to engage in and experiment with reading and writing


Some key early reading syntheses

Some Key Early Reading Syntheses

Adams. M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge,MA: The MIT Press.

Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing reading difficulties in young children.Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction: Reports of the subgroups. Bethesda, MD: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Also available on the internet

  • http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.htm


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

What We Know From This Research

  • Children who are at risk of reading disability can be identified as early as kindergarten(Torgesen, Wagner, Rashotte, Alexander, & Conway, 1997), and early intervention is the key.

  • Kindergarten teachers have a brief window to intervene to prevent an escalating pattern of failure.

  • Overall, to change outcomes, we must provide the highest quality instruction available as early as possible.

  • The critical time for instruction = Kindergarten!


Kindergarten instructional targets

Kindergarten Instructional Targets

  • Phonological Awareness.

    • The awareness and understanding of the sound structure of our language, that “cat” is composed of the sounds /k/ /a/ /t/.

  • Alphabetic Principle. Based on two parts:

    • Alphabetic Understanding. Words are composed of letters that represent sounds, and

    • Phonological Recoding. Systematically identifying a letter sound and blending the sounds together to retrieve the pronunciation of an unknown printed string or to spell.

  • Automaticity = Fluency

    • The ability to translate letters-to-sounds-to-words fluently and effortlessly


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

What should kids be able to DO by the end of kindergarten that is most predictive of Success in Reading.

1. Blending

  • Orally blend

    • onset-rime (m - ilk)

    • 2 - 3 separately spoken phonemes into one syllable words. (m-e : me . f - u - n : fun.)

      2. Segmentation

  • Identify the first sound in a 1 syllable word ( bug begins with the sound /b/)

  • Say the individual sounds in 2 to 3 phoneme 1 syllable words (/c/ /a/ /t/)


Teaching big ideas in alphabetic understanding in kindergarten

Teaching BIG Ideas in Alphabetic Understanding in kindergarten

  • Teach letter & sound blending, segmenting

  • Scaffold the Instruction

    • read and practice

      • first in isolation...

      • then in words...

      • then in connected text

    • begin with most common, high frequency sounds and words

    • teach one item at a time with intensive practice, ... then continue cumulative and distributed practice daily


What should kids be able to do by the end of kindergarten

What should kids be able to DO by the end of kindergarten?

Letter - Sound correspondence

  • Identify letters by sound

  • Say the most common sound for letters

    Decoding

  • Blend sounds of letters to READ short words

    Sight-word reading

  • Recognize common sight words

    • (e.g. a, I, is, the, my you, of, are)


Alphabetic understanding research conclusions

Alphabetic UnderstandingResearch Conclusions

  • Letter-sound knowledge

    • is prerequisite to effective word identification. The primary difference between good and poor readers is the ability to use letter-sound correspondence to identify words.

  • Students who acquire and apply alphabetic understanding early in their reading careers reap long-term benefits.

  • Teaching students to listen, remember, and process the letter-sound correspondence in words is a difficult, demanding, yet achievable goal with long lasting effects.


Alphabetic understanding research conclusions1

Alphabetic UnderstandingResearch Conclusions

  • Combining instruction in phonological awareness and letter-sounds appears to be the most favorable for successful early reading.

  • A whole word strategy, by itself, has limited utility in an orthography based on an alphabet.

  • Awareness of the relation between sounds and their corresponding printed letter can be taught.


So the pressure is on

So-- The “pressure” is on!

  • Kindergarten outcomes contribute substantially to first grade reading outcomes.

  • By focusing on early literacy skills and attaining established phonological awareness in kindergarten, the likelihood of successful reading outcomes increases.

  • For students with a deficit in phonological awareness in kindergarten, reading difficulty and reading failure are likely - unless skills are remediated early.


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

We know from previous research

  • It is critical for kindergarten reading instruction to make explicit the connections between print and the sounds of spoken language.

  • How we teach the two component skills of letter-sounds and phonological blending and segmenting is as important to children’s progress in becoming readers as what we teach.


Key questions

Key Questions

  • If traditional DAP kindergarten teachers implement a structured, teacher-directed set of instructional lessons will students meet key instructional benchmarks?

  • If kids are successful, will teachers “buy into” the more structured approach?

  • Will the size of the group make a difference

    • whole group instruction (13 –15 children),

    • small group, (6 or fewer children)


Teacher participants

Teachers self-selected to participate:

2 teachers in same district

1 teacher from K-5 school in neighboring district

1 teacher volunteered as Control.

She allowed us to assess her students but felt her children were learning what was necessary to meet kindergarten benchmarks.

Teacher Participants


School a

School A

Intervention group (Whole class instruction)

  • N = 39 children am / pm Kindergarten (2 teachers)

    • 15 minutes of explicit instructional lessons along with early literacy DAP instruction

      Control group (Traditional Kindergarten)

  • N = 26 children in am. / pm (1 teacher)

    • Used early literacy program based on DAP guidelines


School b

School B

Intervention group (small group instruction)

22 children in am / pm kindergarten (2 teachers)

  • 15 minutes of explicit instructional lessons along with early literacy DAP instruction

  • (5 to 6 children in each group)

Difference from School A:

Children divided into 2 groups, 6 children each. 15-minute lessons taught by classroom teacher & Title 1 teacher.


Teachers philosophy statements

Teachers’ Philosophy Statements

  • “I think children learn best by exploring & experiencing many different things in our curriculum, My role should be to set up the activities so the children learn by doing.”

  • “My job…is to take each child from the level they are at when they come into kindergarten and help them reach their highest potential.”

  • “My philosophy generally is to accept children at their current point in development & progress them according to their ability.”


Teachers philosophy statements1

Teachers’ Philosophy Statements

  • “My job is to develop the child’s natural curiosity and desire to learn through the provision of meaningful, interesting & age appropriate experiences.”

  • “I believe children learn best through meaningful hands on experiences which allow them to interact with objects, materials, and people in their environment.

  • “The role of the teacher is to systematically model, teach, and design learning situations in which the students learn concepts, skills, and ideas, using a variety of ways…through explicit, implicit, actual hands on experiential instruction. The method of delivery depends on the students and how they learn best.”


Types of literacy activities in dap classrooms

Types of Literacy Activities in DAP Classrooms

  • Memorizing letter names & sounds

  • Rhyming games

  • 6-trait writing lessons

  • Phonemic awareness activities that stress variety of skills

  • Phonics lessons focusing on individual letters & sounds and how to blend them

  • Shared reading & writing experiences

  • Independent writing experiences based on real life experiences


Assessment targets and age range

Assessment Targets and Age Range

Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) were developed by Good and Associates at the University of Oregon to measure and monitor student outcomes of key instructional targets in beginning reading.

Initial Sound


Assessment targets and age range1

Assessment Targetsand Age Range

Initial Sound

Initial Sound Fluency measures a child’s ability to say the initial sound of a spoken word


Assessment targets and age range2

Assessment Targets and Age Range

Initial Sound

Phonemic Segmentation Fluency measures a child’s ability to say all of the sounds in a spoken word


Assessment targets and age range3

Assessment Targets and Age Range

Initial Sound

Nonsense Word Fluency measures a child’s ability to say the sounds in; or read “make-believe” words


Initial sound fluency isf

Initial Sound Fluency (ISF)


Initial sound fluency

Initial Sound Fluency


Initial sound fluency1

Initial Sound Fluency


Initial sound fluency2

Initial Sound Fluency


Initial sound fluency3

Initial Sound Fluency


Initial sound fluency4

Initial Sound Fluency


Initial sound fluency5

Initial Sound Fluency

We can see that intervention makes a difference for ISF.

But ISF is not a goalin and of itself.


Initial sound fluency and phoneme segmentation fluency

Initial Sound Fluency and Phoneme Segmentation Fluency


Initial sound fluency6

ISF corresponds with PSF

In general:

Children who scored higher in ISF scored higher in PSF as well.

Children who scored lower in ISF scored lower in PSF as well.

Initial Sound Fluency


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf

Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF)


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf1

Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF)


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf2

Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF)


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf3

Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF)


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf4

Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF)


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf5

Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF)


Phonemic segmentation fluency psf6

Phonemic Segmentation Fluency (PSF)

We can see that intervention makes a difference for PSF.

But PSF is not a goalin and of itself.


Phonemic segmentation fluency and nonsense word fluency nwf

Phonemic Segmentation Fluency and Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)


Phonemic segmentation fluency and nonsense word fluency

PSF corresponds with NWF

In general:

Children who scored higher in PSF scored higher in NWF as well.

Children who scored lower in PSF scored lower in NWF as well.

Phonemic Segmentation Fluency and Nonsense Word Fluency


Nonsense word fluency nwf

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

We can see that intervention makes a difference for NWF.

But isNWF measuring how well kids can decoderealwords ?

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)


Word reading generalization

Word Reading Generalization


Word reading generalization1

Word Reading Generalization

How many untrained words should a kindergarten student read in a minute?

The DAP answer is:

As many as they can.

How many words can they read?


Word reading generalization2

Word Reading Generalization

Using a structured program does not look like it is detrimental to academic development

in fact, it appears to facilitate early reading ability!


What does this mean for individual children

What does this mean for individual Children?

Remember DAP Guidelines for teaching

Age appropriateness and individualization

Student readiness

Teaching in the Zone of Proximal Development

Integration of curriculum & assessment

Importance of active engagement


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Based on ISF in October of Kindergarten we predicted these students in the DAP classroom would not be able to read

Control Group: Typical predicted non - readers (based on ISF)

60

50

40

Phonemes per minute

30

20

10

0

0PSF

1PSF

2PSF

3PSF

4PSF

Session For PSF Assessment


And in may children with low isf in october couldn t read words like mop him run

…and in May, (Children with Low ISF in October)couldn’tread words like:mop, him, run…


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Based on ISF in October of Kindergarten we predicted these students in the DAP classroomwould be able to read

Control Group: Typical predicted readers (based on ISF)

60

50

40

Phonemes per minute

30

20

10

0

0PSF

1PSF

2PSF

3PSF

4PSF

Session For PSF Assessment


And in may they read an average of about 4 or 5 words per minute

And in May, they read an average of about 4 or 5 words per minute.

Control Group: Typical predicted readers (based on ISF)

60

Wd Rdg Gen

50

25

24

23

22

21

40

20

19

18

17

16

15

Words read per minute

14

Phonemes per minute

30

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

20

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

10

1

2

Student

0

0PSF

1PSF

2PSF

3PSF

4PSF

Session For PSF Assessment


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Based on ISF in October of Kindergarten we predicted these students in the DAP classroomwould be able to read

Control Group: Typical predicted readers (based on ISF)

60

50

40

Phonemes per minute

30

20

10

0

0PSF

1PSF

2PSF

3PSF

4PSF

Session For PSF Assessment


Does dap meet individuals at the zone of proximal development

Does DAP meet individuals at the Zone of Proximal Development?

Control Group: Typical predicted readers (based on ISF)

60

Wd Rdg Gen

They had the skill in segmentation

50

25

24

23

22

21

40

20

19

18

17

16

They could not read, even though they were ready to read!

15

Words read per minute

14

Phonemes per minute

30

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

20

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

10

1

2

Student

0

0PSF

1PSF

2PSF

3PSF

4PSF

Session For PSF Assessment


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Based on ISF in October of Kindergarten we predicted these students in the WHOLE CLASSIntervention ClassroomwouldNOTbe able to read


Can whole group instruction meet kids at the zone of proximal development

CAN whole group instruction meet kids at the Zone of Proximal Development?


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Based on ISF in October of Kindergarten we predicted these students in the WHOLE CLASSIntervention Classroomwouldbe able to read


Negotiating the tension between dap skills based instruction in kindergarten

Based on ISF in October of Kindergarten we predicted these students in the Small GroupIntervention ClassroomwouldNOTbe able to read

3 of 4 children made it to criterion levels on PSF


Can small group instruction meet children at the zpd

Can small group instruction meet children at the ZPD?


October isf predicted reading and

October ISF predicted reading and…

ByMaythey could read.


Basic components of lesson sequence

Basic Components of Lesson Sequence

Activity 1: Letter Names and Sounds

  • Sequence: a, m, t, s, i, f, d, r, o, p, n, l, c, b, u, g, h, x, e, v, j, w, k, y, z, q

  • The more useful letters are introduced first.

  • The most common sound is taught

  • Letter names and sounds are introduced simultaneously. “The name of this letter is __. The sound for this letter is /----/.”


Basic components of lesson sequence1

Basic Components of Lesson Sequence

  • Activity 2: Phonemic Blending & Segmenting

  • auditory blending and segmenting

    • separate activities within the same lesson

    • combined after children are able to segment words correctly into individual sounds

  • 4 - 6 words are used in each instructional cycle.

  • Words contain sounds that were taught previously or will be taught in the following cycle (e.g., am, mat, sam)


Basic components of lesson sequence2

Basic Components of Lesson Sequence

  • Activity 3: Strategic Integration

  • only words that children have been taught to blend and segment in earlier cycles.

  • a blank tiles represent a phoneme when the letter name and sound is first introduced.

  • manipulative letters are used after the letter name and sound are taught & reviewed.

  • Word Cards replace letter cards.


Instructional design features

Instructional Design Features

  • Carefully sequenced examples, practice, corrective feedback, and review

  • Clear, unambiguous strategies for teaching phonological blending & segmenting skills, letter names & sounds

  • Clear, unambiguous strategies for making explicit connections between the sounds in words and letters in words


Answers and directions

Answers and Directions

  • If traditional DAP kindergarten teachers implement a structured, teacher-directed set of instructional lessons will students meet key instructional benchmarks?

    Yes

    But teacher effectiveness depends on teacher knowledge and skill.


Answers and directions1

Answers and Directions

If kids are successful, will teachers “buy into” the more structured approach?

Not necessarily, even when presented with increased student performance teacher reports vary.

T1: “It is hard for me to follow a set list of words…Explicit instruction is necessary but 15 minutes is too much” [will not repeat the program]

T2: “I will use parts but not on a continuous basis”

T3: “At first the children did not like reading… hard for them to concentrate… it taught them a system to use when [reading]… as they learned to read their attitude changed toward [ the program]”


Answers and directions2

Answers and Directions

  • Will the size of the group make a difference

    • whole group instruction (13 –15 children),

    • small group, (6 or fewer children)

      Yes, statistically and educationally significant differences on multiple indicators.


No child left behind education act 2001

No Child Left Behind Education Act 2001

  • Commitment to “everychild can read by the end of third grade”

  • Focus is on scientifically basedearly reading interventions and achieving results for all children

  • Schools, districts that fail to make adequate yearly progress toward statewide proficiency goals subject to improvement, corrective action plans to get “them back on course.”

  • Key words—prevention, early identification, and early intervention


Implications for instruction

Implications for instruction

Balance can work

  • Structured, carefully sequenced instruction in key target areas results in higher gains, than attempts to catch kids at their individual ZPD with DAP instruction alone.

  • Use connected, decodable text facilitates early word reading.

  • Print rich environments, and interesting stories to can facilitate the development of oral language and comprehension.


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