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Undergrad. Certificate in Renewable Energy. Deadline Monday, March 1 Five $1000 scholarships Raesi.colorado.edu/ undergradcert. Too cheap to meter!. Power from nuclear fusion. Nuclear Fusion. 2 1 H 1 + 2 1 H 1  3 2 He 1 + 1 0 n 1  3 1 H 2 + 1 1 H 0

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Undergrad certificate in renewable energy

Undergrad. Certificate in Renewable Energy.

Deadline Monday, March 1

Five $1000 scholarships

Raesi.colorado.edu/undergradcert


Too cheap to meter

Too cheap to meter!

Power from nuclear fusion.


Nuclear fusion

Nuclear Fusion

21H1 + 21H132He1 +10n1

31H2 + 11H0

Using 21H1=Deuterium (D), 0.015% of all the hydrogen in the oceans.

Each reaction3.65 MeV

(each fission200 MeV)

(carbon atom combustion3 eV)


But--

  • Two positives repel, and can come near enough to react only at high temperatures and pressure. “Thermonuclear”

  • Plasma– confined only by magnetic fields.

  • ITER=International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor


ITER

  • International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor

  • D+D at 150 million deg C

  • 10 billion euros and counting

  • Maybe to operate in 2025

  • Sustain 500 MW for 1000 sec


Points

Points

+: no CO2, lots of deuterium, no fission waste, no runaway

-: How to couple energy to the grid? Not heat.

Keeping the reaction going- 24/7

Cost

Activation- the neutrons hit the walls.


Right sized fission reactors

Right sized fission reactors

Do we have to build only giant plants? Capital cost, large components, large markets, not modular.

Interest in smaller systems, same principles.


Review of monday wednesday

Review of Monday, Wednesday

Nuclear reactions such as fission must balance, in Z and N (and A=N+Z)

Fissions per second=

Joules/sec (Watts) / (Joules/fission)

And each fission releases 200 MeV=200x106 x “eV/Joule” =?????


Weights
Weights

  • You must balance grams in your equation, with 12 for carbon, 235 for 235U, etc, just like chemical reactions.

  • BUT-here we also use the information (200MeV) per atom, and we did not use the energy to burn one carbon atoms.

  • New concept-the mole. Use ratios:

    12 grams of carbon hold 6.02x1023 atoms of carbon. 235 grams of 235U hold 6.02x1023 atoms of 235U. etc


So-

  • Fissions per year, per second of 235U from power.

  • Weight from the ratio of that many atoms to 235 grams, which hold the 6.02x1023 atoms.


Half life

Half life.

By what factor is the 235U present at the forming of the earth, 4.5 billion years ago, decayed away? T1/2=0.7 billion years

Count half lives=4.5/0.7=6.4 half lives.

At six half lives, (1/2)6=1/64=0.0156

At seven half lives (1/2)7=1/128=0.0078

So we have about 1% of the original 235U.

(found at 0.7% in ore)


  • Homework #7 due Monday March 1

  • A typical fission reaction for uranium is

  • 1on1 +23592U 14313153I78 +AZ XX N +3 10n1,

  • where I is the element iodine.

  • (2) What are the atomic weight A, the atomic

  • number Z and the neutron number N for the

  • element XX in the specific fission reaction above,

  • one of many possible.

  • (7) If we fission I kg of 235U completely in one year,

  • at a plant efficiency of 30%, how many electrical GW

  • can we sell?

  • Each fission yields 200 x106 eV (200 MeV). 235 grams of

  • 235U hold 6.02x1023 atoms.



Next week

Next week If we fission one kg of

Monday- Comparison of electricity costs and suitability- fossil, solar, wind, nuclear….

Wednesday-Efficiency (chapter 7),

CU steps

Friday-Insulation


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