Note taking in egr115
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Note taking in EGR115. notebook slide number in margin. comments on the right. write down vocabulary words write down overall ideas write down things that we repeat 4 or 5 times! write down possible errors printout of slides print 2 or 3 slides per page draw arrows, add your comments

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Note taking in EGR115

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Note taking in egr115

Note taking in EGR115

  • notebook

    • slide number in margin. comments on the right.

    • write down vocabulary words

    • write down overall ideas

    • write down things that we repeat 4 or 5 times!

    • write down possible errors

  • printout of slides

    • print 2 or 3 slides per page

    • draw arrows, add your comments

    • highlight


Introduction to computers and programming

Introduction to Computers and Programming

History of computers (4 slides)

What is a computer system?

What is software?

What is programming?

Different languages

Compiled vs. interpreted


History of computers

History of Computers

Computers ≠ calculators

Computers are programmable. The first calculators were not programmable, hence not considered computers.

History 1/4


1854 150 years ago pioneer of modern computer

1854 (~150 years ago) - Pioneer of modern computer!

Babbage’s difference engine

Device to subtract adjacent valuesin a column of numbers. Created for engineers in charge of creating tables of logarithms and trigonometric functions.

History 2/4


1943 70 years ago came colossus

1943 (~70 years ago) .. came Colossus

  • Primarily used for breaking the German codes during World War 2.

  • It would crack Enigma Codes (codes that were cracked by exhaustively shifting text by arbitrary amounts). For example:

    ‘Zsszbjzs 9599’ would be

    ‘Attack at 0600’

History 3/4


Finally the von neumann architecture

Finally, the von Neumann Architecture…

  • The Von Neumanncomputer architecture is mostly what we still use today. The architecture separates a computer in 3 major parts:

    • The Central Processing Unit (CPU)

    • The computer memory

    • The Input/Output (I/O) devices

?

?

CPU + memory

Screen=output

Mouse=input

Speakers=output

Knob=input

Keyboard=input

History 4/4


Software and programming

Software and programming?

  • Microsoft Word, Excel, Guitar Hero, the address book in your cell phone, the electronic that starts a car, the avionics in an airplane… are all softwarethat were written by people.

  • Programming is the act of writing logical instructions that will be executed when people use the software.

  • It is as difficult as learning to speak a foreign language, since the programmer is constrained to the vocabulary (specific keywords) and grammar (exact syntax) of programming.

    ( ) ‘ ’ , ;

    if for else while switch case otherwise end input fprintf


A computer system today

A computer system today

  • Keeping the von Neumann architecture, today’s computing systems combine both hardware and software.

    • Hardware (i.e. what’s hard and can break..): mouse, keyboard, monitor, hard disk, printer, CD, DVD.

    • Software i.e. the programs that describe the steps we want the computer to perform.


Trivia 1

Trivia 1

  • An actual DVD is:

    a) hardware

    b) software

  • The content on a Microsoft Office DVD is most likely:

    a) hardware

    b) software


Categories of software

Categories of software

  • Software contains the instructions the CPU uses to run programs.

  • There are several categories, including:

    • Operating systems (OS) – manager of the computer system as a whole

    • Software applications – commercial programs that have been written to solve specific problems

    • Language compilers - to ‘translate’ programs written by people into something understandable by the machine (sometimes not needed)


Trivia 2

Trivia 2

  • Which type of software are these? ________


Trivia 3

Trivia 3

  • What type of software are these?____________


Generations of languages used to write software

Generations of Languages used to write software

1) Machine language – also

called binary language.

Sequence of 0’s and 1’s.

2) Assembly language – each line of code produces a single machine instruction (add, subtract…)

3) High-level language – slightly closer to spoken languages.

addb,c

adda,b

a= a + b + c;

This line does the same as the two above.


Trivia 4

Trivia 4

  • Order these types of languages in the order they came out?

    • assembly language

    • machine language

    • high-level language


Finally matlab

Finally… MATLAB

  • Is an interpretedlanguage – does not require compilation, but it does have a compilation step hidden from the user.

  • Has an interactiveenvironment –

    • “In the MATLAB environment, you can develop and execute programs that contain MATLAB commands. You can execute a MATLAB command, observe the results, and then execute another MATLAB command that interacts with the information in memory, observe its results and so on.”


Internet vs www

Internet vs. WWW?

  • Internet is the “boss” of all communication tools, including www but also servers, etc…


Wrapping up

Wrapping Up

  • Computers vs. Calculators?

  • Evolution of computers from WW2?

  • Von Neumann Architecture?

  • Hardware vs. software?

  • Types of software?

  • Types of languages?

  • MATLAB?


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