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WWII Home Front. A. Military Mobilization. Enlistment in the Military. Draft Reinstated This time they were screened Became known as “GIs” 13 million men served. Women in the Service. WAC & WAVES formed as auxiliary units Jobs: Medical Aid Pilots Cryptography Administrative Duties.

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WWII

Home

Front



Enlistment in the military
Enlistment in the Military

  • Draft Reinstated

  • This time they were screened

  • Became known as “GIs”

  • 13 million men served


Women in the service
Women in the Service

  • WAC & WAVES formed as auxiliary units

  • Jobs:

    • Medical Aid

    • Pilots

    • Cryptography

    • Administrative Duties


Minorities in the service african americans
Minorities in the ServiceAfrican Americans

  • 1 million served in segregated non-combat units

  • Faced Discrimination

  • Tuskegee

    Airmen

    • 332nd Fighter Group


Minorities in the service native americans
Minorities in the ServiceNative Americans

  • Over 25,000 served

  • Served as “Code Talkers”

  • Most famous were the Navajo

Navajo Code Talkers



Office for war mobilization owm
Office for War Mobilization (OWM)

  • In charge of coordinating all of the new war agencies


War production board
War Production Board

  • Regulated the production and allocation of materials and fuel

  • It rationed such things as gasoline, heating oil, metals, rubber, and plastics


Office of war information
Office of War Information

  • “Informed” people about the war

  • Used the press, radio, and film industry


Financing the war
Financing the War

  • $250 million per day to fight

  • Beginning of National Debt

  • 1941 - $49 billion →

    1945 - $259 billion



  • Ways that the war was financed:

    • Taxes:

      1941 – 4 million tax returns filed

      1945 – 50 million tax returns filed

    • War Bonds:

      Over $185.7 billion sold because of effective propaganda campaign


Effect on the economy
Effect on the Economy

  • Factories operated around the clock for 7 days a week, but are producing less consumer goods than are demanded

  • Shift to defense spending which would continue until the end of the Cold War

  • Created a shift in the population to the “Sunbelt” region (CA & some areas of the South)


Women rosie the riveter
Women & Rosie the Riveter

  • Over 5 million women went to work

  • Rosie propaganda encouraged women to work

  • Industrial jobs were just a variation of domestic tasks

  • Still earned less than men

  • Forced back into homes after war


Other new workers
Other New Workers

  • Bracero Program (1942): brought 200,000 Mexicans into the U.S for short-term employment

Bracero Workers


War labor board
War Labor Board

  • Sought to maintain relations between workers and management

  • Union membership increased to 30% of industrial workers

  • 1943 United Mine Workers Strike prompted more government action

John L. Lewis


Smith connolly antistrike act 1943
Smith-Connolly Antistrike Act (1943)

  • Gave the President the authority to end strikes

  • Gov’t could take control of mines or penalize the strikers



The inflation problem
The Inflation Problem

↑ employment = ↑$

↑$ + ↓Consumer goods =

INFLATION


Office of price administration opa
Office of Price Administration (OPA)

  • Created to deal with inflation

  • Froze prices and rent

  • Rationed scarce supplies


Types of rationing

Certificate: Apply for permission to buy a product

If approved you got a certificate

Coupon: Families were issued coupon books to buy more common items

No coupon, no buying

Types of Rationing


Volunteerism recycling
Volunteerism & Recycling

  • Americans voluntarily gave up some goods to help the war effort

  • Recycling began to conserve resources


Anti-Inflation measures were successful

WWI inflation was 170%

WWII inflation was 29%



African americans double v campaign
African-Americans:Double V Campaign

  • Allied victory abroad & civil rights victory at home

  • Led by A. Phillip Randolph

  • March on Washington Movement 1941


Executive order 8802
Executive Order 8802

  • Established the Fair Employment Practices Committee

  • Ended discrimination in the defense industry

  • 1st federal law to promote equal opportunities


Race riots
Race Riots

  • Tensions in cities

  • Violence plagued 47 cities

  • Detroit 1942: worst race riot


Mexican americans and the zoot suit riots 1943
Mexican-Americans and the Zoot Suit Riots (1943)

  • Young Mexican-Americans wore clothing called “Zoot Suits”

  • June 1943 violence erupted between the sailors and Zoot Suiters




Executive order 9066
Executive Order 9066

  • Japanese on the West Coast seen as potential spies

  • February 19, 1942 FDR orders all Japanese-Americans (Issei & Niesi) to “relocation camps”

  • Over 110,000 Japanese-Americans rounded up



The camps
The Camps

  • 10 Locations in 7 states


Korematsu v the united states 1944
Korematsu v. the United States (1944)

  • Supreme Court decision that upheld the internment of the Japanese as constitutional


Greatest civil rights violation
Greatest Civil Rights Violation

  • $105 million of farmland lost

  • $500 million in yearly income lost

  • Unknown amounts of personal property

  • No act of sabotage ever proven against the internees


Reparations and apology
Reparations and Apology

  • 1988 – Reagan finally apologizes

  • 1990 – Congress authorizes $20,000 to each surviving internee


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