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Session 7: CSP Part 2. Agenda Discussion of Homework Power Tower Dish/Engine Hybrid Systems Homework Assignment. CSP: Power Tower. Power Tower with Storage. Sun-tracking mirrors Tower mounted receiver Storage fluid: Molten salt Salt/Steam heat exchanger Conventional steam plant.

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Session 7 csp part 2

Session 7: CSP Part 2

Agenda

Discussion of Homework

Power Tower

Dish/Engine

Hybrid Systems

Homework Assignment



Power Tower with Storage

  • Sun-tracking mirrors

  • Tower mounted receiver

  • Storage fluid: Molten salt

  • Salt/Steam heat exchanger

  • Conventional steam plant

565 C

(1049 F)

290 C

(554 F)

Source: NREL website


Power tower characteristics
Power Tower Characteristics

  • Solar Multiple = thermal power from collector field

  • peak thermal power for power block

  • For a plant in Mohave Desert

    • Solar Multiple = 2.7

    • Capacity Factor = 65% (w/o storage, CF =25%)

  • Storage Provides

    • Dispatchability

    • Accommodate transient clouds

    • Ability to operate during peak load demand periods


Power tower pros and cons
Power Tower Pros and Cons

  • Pros

    • Dispatchable

    • Cover Peak Demand

    • Accommodate clouds

    • Good efficiency

  • Cons

    • Not modular, can’t provide power until complete

    • Not viable for small power output


Power tower history
Power Tower History

Source: NREL website


Solar two barstow ca
Solar TwoBarstow, CA

Goal: Demonstrate Molten Salt Storage

Source: NREL website


Solar two performance
Solar Two Performance

  • Receiver: Boeing’s Rocketdyne Division

  • Handle Transients: 290 C to 570 C in less than 1 minute (transient clouds)

  • Salt

    • 60% sodium nitrate, 40% potassium nitrate

    • Melts at 220 C (428 F)

    • Low viscosity (similar to water)

    • High wetting factor (hard to contain)


State of art gemasolar
State-of-Art: Gemasolar

  • Output: 19.9 MWe, 110 GWh/year

  • Storage: 15 hours, molten salt

  • 140-meter high tower

  • 2650 120-m2 heliostats

  • Initial Operation: May 2011

  • Location: Spain

  • Owner: Torresol Energy

Sources: http://www.nrel.gov/csp/solarpaces/project_detail.cfm/projectID=40,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemasolar



How do these relate to csp
How do these relate to CSP?

Source: Kockums Website

Source: NASA Photo


Dish stirling based on these technologies
Dish/Stirling Based on these Technologies

Kockums developed a Stirlingengine design based on an Air Independent Propulsion system for submarines

MacDonald Douglas Aircraftdeveloped a dish based on

aircraft structural design

Source: Kockums Website

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005


Dish stirling approach stirling energy systems inc
Dish-Stirling ApproachStirling Energy Systems, Inc.

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005


Relative advantages of dishes vs other concentrating technologies
Relative Advantages Of Dishes Vs. Other Concentrating Technologies

  • Distributed Generation AND Central Power Plant Capabilities

  • Minimal Water Usage

  • Easier To Site And More Environmentally Friendly:

    • No Site Leveling Required

    • No Defoliation


Solar Dish Stirling Operation Technologies

  • Dish Concentrator Focuses Sun’s Energy On Receiver

  • Stirling Engine Converts Thermal Energy To Electrical Energy

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005


Dish stirling principles of operation
Dish Stirling Principles of Operation Technologies

  • Dish Concentrator Focuses Sun’s Energy On Receiver

  • Stirling Engine Converts Thermal Energy To Electrical Energy

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005


Dish stirling twice as efficient as next best solar

ESTIMATED ANNUAL ENERGY Technologies

Solar Dish Stirling 629 kWh/m2

Central Receiver 327 kWh/m2

Parabolic Trough 260 kWh/m2

Tracking Photovoltaic 217 kWh/m2

Central

Receiver

Solar Dish Stirling

Daily Generated Energy Per Unit Area (kW hr/sq m)

Parabolic

Trough

Tracking Photovoltaic

Sun Daily Energy Per Unit Area (kW hr/sq m)

Dish Stirling - Twice AsEfficient As Next Best Solar

Source: Southern California Edison and Sandia National Laboratories


Solar to bus bar peak efficiency 30
Solar-to-Bus bar Peak Efficiency-30% Technologies

91.1

79.3

30.0

33.3

31.4

100

100

78.9

88.1

80

REFLECTIVITY

RECEIVER

60

INTERCEPT

POWER PERFORMANCE

(%)

AVAILABLE IRRADIANCE

40

RECEIVER TEMP.DIF

PCU

ENGINE

20

GENERATOR

PARASITIC

0

100

91.1

96.7

90

99.5

42

94.8

95.5

SUBSYTEM EFFICIENCY

Dish Receiver Parasitics

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005


Ses dish stirling system characteristics
SES Dish Stirling System Characteristics Technologies

  • Concentrator Glass Area.................. 91.01 m2 (979.72 ft2) @82 mirrors

  • Receiver Aperture…………………… 8 in diameter; 0.349 ft2 area

  • Concentration Ratio………………… 2704

  • Design Wind Speed-Operating……. 30 mph-Survival…..90 mph

  • Mirror Type…................................... Silvered glass; 0.7 mm thick

  • Reflectivity…………………………… >91%

  • Module Height………………………. 11.89 m (39 ft)

  • Module Width……………………….. 11.28 m (37ft)

  • Module weight………………………. 14,900 lbs

  • Sunlight-to-busbar efficiency……… 29.4 percent (at 1000 watts/m2)

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005


Source: SES Presentation Technologiesto AZ/NV SAE, 2005


CONNECTING PISTONS TO A CRANKSHAFT Technologies

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005


Stirling engine and receiver
Stirling Engine and Receiver Technologies

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005


Kockums 4 95 stirling engine
Kockums 4-95 Stirling Engine Technologies

Source: SES

Presentationto AZ/NV SAE,

2005


Kockums 4-95 Stirling Engine Technologies

Source: SES

Presentationto AZ/NV SAE,

2005


Kockums 4 95 engine key parameters
Kockums 4-95 Engine Key Parameters Technologies

  • Net Power Rating...................... 25kW at 1000W/m2 insolation

  • Electrical Power….................... 480, 60 Hz, 3 Phase

  • Generator........ 1800 rpm induction

  • Engine Type……. Kinematic Stirling

  • Number of Cylinders…… Four Double-Acting Pistons

  • Displacement……………. Each Piston at 95cc

  • Operating Speed……….. 1800 rpm

  • Working Fluid……… Hydrogen

  • Engine Temperature…… 7200 C (13280F)

  • Engine Pressure………. 20 MPa

  • Power Control………… Variable Pressure

  • Cooling……………… Water/Air Radiator

  • Coolant Temperature…. 500C (1220+F)

  • Power Conversion Weight… <1500 lbs

Source: SES

Presentationto AZ/NV SAE,

2005



The history of stirling energy systems
The History of Stirling Energy Systems Technologies

  • SES buys Dish design and hardware from MacDonald Douglas /California Edison

  • SES licenses Stirling engine technology from Kockums

  • 2004 SES redesigns Dish

  • SES installs 6 units at Sandia Nat’l Labs, Albuquerque, N.M.

  • SES signs PPAs for 800 MWe with 2 California utilities

  • 2007 SES redesigns both Engine and Dish

  • 2010 SES installs 60 units in Peoria, AZ

  • 2011 SES files Chapter 7 Bankruptcy due to falling PV prices and global financial issues


The future of dish engine
The Future of Dish/Engine Technologies

  • Stirling engine long-term reliability not proven

  • Hybrid gas turbine system is being developedby several companies

  • Dish can be used for concentrated PV (CPV)

Source: SunLab


Southwest solar technology hybrid fossil solar brayton
Southwest Solar Technology TechnologiesHybrid Fossil – Solar Brayton

  • • Largest commercial solar dish in the world

  • • 320 sq m of aperture area

  • 250 kW thermal power

  • focus diameter 0.5 m

  • Tracking accuracy is within 0.1 deg

Source: SST


Sst i 10 and salt river
SST: I-10 and Salt River Technologies

Source: SST



Hybrid fossil fuel system
Hybrid Fossil Fuel System Technologies

  • Relatively easy to put in-line for trough and power tower

  • Difficult to introduce with dish/Stirling

  • Relatively easy to put in-line with dish/Brayton

Source:G. CohenSolargenix Energypresentation to IEEE Renewable

Energy, Las Vegas, May 16, 2006


Hybrid fossil options
Hybrid Fossil Options Technologies

  • Topping: Needed to get higher input temperature to engine

  • Supplemental: Provides additional energy when needed

  • Stand Alone: Provides all power input if needed

Source:G. CohenSolargenix Energypresentation to IEEE Renewable

Energy, Las Vegas, May 16, 2006


Trough storage hybrid concept
Trough Storage/Hybrid Concept Technologies

Source: Overview on Thermal Storage Systems, Ulf Herrmann et al., FLABEG SolarInternational GmbH, Workshop on Thermal Storage for Trough Plants, February 20-21,2002.


Air receiver with storage
Air Receiver with Storage Technologies

Source: Romero, M. et al., An Update on Solar Central Receiver Systems, Projects, and Technologies. Journal of Solar Engineering, May 2002, Vol. 124, 98-104.


Power tower gas turbine plant
Power Tower Gas Turbine Plant Technologies

Source: Schwarzbozl, P., et al.

Solar gas turbine systems: Design,

cost and perspectives.

Solar Energy 80 (2006) 1231-1240.


Power tower combined cycle
Power Tower Combined Cycle Technologies

Source: Schwarzbozl, P., et al.

Solar gas turbine systems: Design,

cost and perspectives.

Solar Energy 80 (2006) 1231-1240.


Hybrid power tower combined cycle concept solar air preheating
Hybrid Power Tower Combined Cycle Concept TechnologiesSolar Air Preheating

Source: Romero, M. et al.,

An Update on Solar Central

Receiver Systems,

Projects, and Technologies.

Journal of Solar

Engineering, May 2002,

Vol. 124,

98-104.


Conceptual design with solar turbines recuperated 3 5 mwe gas turbine
Conceptual Design with Solar Turbines TechnologiesRecuperated 3.5 MWe Gas Turbine

Source: Schwarzbozl, P., et al.

Solar gas turbine systems: Design,

cost and perspectives.

Solar Energy 80 (2006) 1231-1240.


Reflective tower concept
Reflective Tower Concept Technologies

Source: Romero, M. et al.,

An Update on Solar

Central Receiver Systems,

Projects, and Technologies.

Journal of Solar Engineering,

May 2002, Vol. 124, 98-104.


Solarization of honeywell 75 kwe parallon microturbine
Solarization of Honeywell 75 kWe TechnologiesParallon Microturbine


Homework assignment
Homework Assignment Technologies

  • Prepare for quiz over CSP

  • Review slides for next lecture


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