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Session 7: CSP Part 2. Agenda Discussion of Homework Power Tower Dish/Engine Hybrid Systems Homework Assignment. CSP: Power Tower. Power Tower with Storage. Sun-tracking mirrors Tower mounted receiver Storage fluid: Molten salt Salt/Steam heat exchanger Conventional steam plant.

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session 7 csp part 2

Session 7: CSP Part 2

Agenda

Discussion of Homework

Power Tower

Dish/Engine

Hybrid Systems

Homework Assignment

slide3

Power Tower with Storage

  • Sun-tracking mirrors
  • Tower mounted receiver
  • Storage fluid: Molten salt
  • Salt/Steam heat exchanger
  • Conventional steam plant

565 C

(1049 F)

290 C

(554 F)

Source: NREL website

power tower characteristics
Power Tower Characteristics
  • Solar Multiple = thermal power from collector field
  • peak thermal power for power block
  • For a plant in Mohave Desert
    • Solar Multiple = 2.7
    • Capacity Factor = 65% (w/o storage, CF =25%)
  • Storage Provides
    • Dispatchability
    • Accommodate transient clouds
    • Ability to operate during peak load demand periods
power tower pros and cons
Power Tower Pros and Cons
  • Pros
    • Dispatchable
    • Cover Peak Demand
    • Accommodate clouds
    • Good efficiency
  • Cons
    • Not modular, can’t provide power until complete
    • Not viable for small power output
power tower history
Power Tower History

Source: NREL website

solar two barstow ca
Solar TwoBarstow, CA

Goal: Demonstrate Molten Salt Storage

Source: NREL website

solar two performance
Solar Two Performance
  • Receiver: Boeing’s Rocketdyne Division
  • Handle Transients: 290 C to 570 C in less than 1 minute (transient clouds)
  • Salt
    • 60% sodium nitrate, 40% potassium nitrate
    • Melts at 220 C (428 F)
    • Low viscosity (similar to water)
    • High wetting factor (hard to contain)
state of art gemasolar
State-of-Art: Gemasolar
  • Output: 19.9 MWe, 110 GWh/year
  • Storage: 15 hours, molten salt
  • 140-meter high tower
  • 2650 120-m2 heliostats
  • Initial Operation: May 2011
  • Location: Spain
  • Owner: Torresol Energy

Sources: http://www.nrel.gov/csp/solarpaces/project_detail.cfm/projectID=40,

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemasolar

how do these relate to csp
How do these relate to CSP?

Source: Kockums Website

Source: NASA Photo

dish stirling based on these technologies
Dish/Stirling Based on these Technologies

Kockums developed a Stirlingengine design based on an Air Independent Propulsion system for submarines

MacDonald Douglas Aircraftdeveloped a dish based on

aircraft structural design

Source: Kockums Website

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005

dish stirling approach stirling energy systems inc
Dish-Stirling ApproachStirling Energy Systems, Inc.

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005

relative advantages of dishes vs other concentrating technologies
Relative Advantages Of Dishes Vs. Other Concentrating Technologies
  • Distributed Generation AND Central Power Plant Capabilities
  • Minimal Water Usage
  • Easier To Site And More Environmentally Friendly:
    • No Site Leveling Required
    • No Defoliation
slide15

Solar Dish Stirling Operation

  • Dish Concentrator Focuses Sun’s Energy On Receiver
  • Stirling Engine Converts Thermal Energy To Electrical Energy

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005

dish stirling principles of operation
Dish Stirling Principles of Operation
  • Dish Concentrator Focuses Sun’s Energy On Receiver
  • Stirling Engine Converts Thermal Energy To Electrical Energy

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005

dish stirling twice as efficient as next best solar

ESTIMATED ANNUAL ENERGY

Solar Dish Stirling 629 kWh/m2

Central Receiver 327 kWh/m2

Parabolic Trough 260 kWh/m2

Tracking Photovoltaic 217 kWh/m2

Central

Receiver

Solar Dish Stirling

Daily Generated Energy Per Unit Area (kW hr/sq m)

Parabolic

Trough

Tracking Photovoltaic

Sun Daily Energy Per Unit Area (kW hr/sq m)

Dish Stirling - Twice AsEfficient As Next Best Solar

Source: Southern California Edison and Sandia National Laboratories

solar to bus bar peak efficiency 30
Solar-to-Bus bar Peak Efficiency-30%

91.1

79.3

30.0

33.3

31.4

100

100

78.9

88.1

80

REFLECTIVITY

RECEIVER

60

INTERCEPT

POWER PERFORMANCE

(%)

AVAILABLE IRRADIANCE

40

RECEIVER TEMP.DIF

PCU

ENGINE

20

GENERATOR

PARASITIC

0

100

91.1

96.7

90

99.5

42

94.8

95.5

SUBSYTEM EFFICIENCY

Dish Receiver Parasitics

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005

ses dish stirling system characteristics
SES Dish Stirling System Characteristics
  • Concentrator Glass Area.................. 91.01 m2 (979.72 ft2) @82 mirrors
  • Receiver Aperture…………………… 8 in diameter; 0.349 ft2 area
  • Concentration Ratio………………… 2704
  • Design Wind Speed-Operating……. 30 mph-Survival…..90 mph
  • Mirror Type…................................... Silvered glass; 0.7 mm thick
  • Reflectivity…………………………… >91%
  • Module Height………………………. 11.89 m (39 ft)
  • Module Width……………………….. 11.28 m (37ft)
  • Module weight………………………. 14,900 lbs
  • Sunlight-to-busbar efficiency……… 29.4 percent (at 1000 watts/m2)

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005

slide21

CONNECTING PISTONS TO A CRANKSHAFT

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005

stirling engine and receiver
Stirling Engine and Receiver

Source: SES Presentationto AZ/NV SAE, 2005

kockums 4 95 stirling engine
Kockums 4-95 Stirling Engine

Source: SES

Presentationto AZ/NV SAE,

2005

slide24

Kockums 4-95 Stirling Engine

Source: SES

Presentationto AZ/NV SAE,

2005

kockums 4 95 engine key parameters
Kockums 4-95 Engine Key Parameters
  • Net Power Rating...................... 25kW at 1000W/m2 insolation
  • Electrical Power….................... 480, 60 Hz, 3 Phase
  • Generator........ 1800 rpm induction
  • Engine Type……. Kinematic Stirling
  • Number of Cylinders…… Four Double-Acting Pistons
  • Displacement……………. Each Piston at 95cc
  • Operating Speed……….. 1800 rpm
  • Working Fluid……… Hydrogen
  • Engine Temperature…… 7200 C (13280F)
  • Engine Pressure………. 20 MPa
  • Power Control………… Variable Pressure
  • Cooling……………… Water/Air Radiator
  • Coolant Temperature…. 500C (1220+F)
  • Power Conversion Weight… <1500 lbs

Source: SES

Presentationto AZ/NV SAE,

2005

the history of stirling energy systems
The History of Stirling Energy Systems
  • SES buys Dish design and hardware from MacDonald Douglas /California Edison
  • SES licenses Stirling engine technology from Kockums
  • 2004 SES redesigns Dish
  • SES installs 6 units at Sandia Nat’l Labs, Albuquerque, N.M.
  • SES signs PPAs for 800 MWe with 2 California utilities
  • 2007 SES redesigns both Engine and Dish
  • 2010 SES installs 60 units in Peoria, AZ
  • 2011 SES files Chapter 7 Bankruptcy due to falling PV prices and global financial issues
the future of dish engine
The Future of Dish/Engine
  • Stirling engine long-term reliability not proven
  • Hybrid gas turbine system is being developedby several companies
  • Dish can be used for concentrated PV (CPV)

Source: SunLab

southwest solar technology hybrid fossil solar brayton
Southwest Solar TechnologyHybrid Fossil – Solar Brayton
  • • Largest commercial solar dish in the world
  • • 320 sq m of aperture area
  • 250 kW thermal power
  • focus diameter 0.5 m
  • Tracking accuracy is within 0.1 deg

Source: SST

hybrid fossil fuel system
Hybrid Fossil Fuel System
  • Relatively easy to put in-line for trough and power tower
  • Difficult to introduce with dish/Stirling
  • Relatively easy to put in-line with dish/Brayton

Source:G. CohenSolargenix Energypresentation to IEEE Renewable

Energy, Las Vegas, May 16, 2006

hybrid fossil options
Hybrid Fossil Options
  • Topping: Needed to get higher input temperature to engine
  • Supplemental: Provides additional energy when needed
  • Stand Alone: Provides all power input if needed

Source:G. CohenSolargenix Energypresentation to IEEE Renewable

Energy, Las Vegas, May 16, 2006

trough storage hybrid concept
Trough Storage/Hybrid Concept

Source: Overview on Thermal Storage Systems, Ulf Herrmann et al., FLABEG SolarInternational GmbH, Workshop on Thermal Storage for Trough Plants, February 20-21,2002.

air receiver with storage
Air Receiver with Storage

Source: Romero, M. et al., An Update on Solar Central Receiver Systems, Projects, and Technologies. Journal of Solar Engineering, May 2002, Vol. 124, 98-104.

power tower gas turbine plant
Power Tower Gas Turbine Plant

Source: Schwarzbozl, P., et al.

Solar gas turbine systems: Design,

cost and perspectives.

Solar Energy 80 (2006) 1231-1240.

power tower combined cycle
Power Tower Combined Cycle

Source: Schwarzbozl, P., et al.

Solar gas turbine systems: Design,

cost and perspectives.

Solar Energy 80 (2006) 1231-1240.

hybrid power tower combined cycle concept solar air preheating
Hybrid Power Tower Combined Cycle ConceptSolar Air Preheating

Source: Romero, M. et al.,

An Update on Solar Central

Receiver Systems,

Projects, and Technologies.

Journal of Solar

Engineering, May 2002,

Vol. 124,

98-104.

conceptual design with solar turbines recuperated 3 5 mwe gas turbine
Conceptual Design with Solar TurbinesRecuperated 3.5 MWe Gas Turbine

Source: Schwarzbozl, P., et al.

Solar gas turbine systems: Design,

cost and perspectives.

Solar Energy 80 (2006) 1231-1240.

reflective tower concept
Reflective Tower Concept

Source: Romero, M. et al.,

An Update on Solar

Central Receiver Systems,

Projects, and Technologies.

Journal of Solar Engineering,

May 2002, Vol. 124, 98-104.

homework assignment
Homework Assignment
  • Prepare for quiz over CSP
  • Review slides for next lecture
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