KEY CONCEPT
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KEY CONCEPT Animals are diverse but share common characteristics. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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KEY CONCEPT Animals are diverse but share common characteristics. . Animals are the most physically diverse kingdom of organisms. Animals range in size from 25-meter-long blue whales to microscopic rotifers. Animals are found nearly everywhere on Earth.

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KEY CONCEPT Animals are diverse but share common characteristics.

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Key concept animals are diverse but share common characteristics

KEY CONCEPTAnimals are diverse but share common characteristics.


Animals are the most physically diverse kingdom of organisms

Animals are the most physically diverse kingdom of organisms.

  • Animals range in size from 25-meter-long blue whales to microscopic rotifers.

  • Animals are found nearly everywhere on Earth.


All animals share a set of characteristics

All animals share a set of characteristics.

  • All animals share a unique set of derivedcharacters.

  • Animal cells aresupported by collagen.

    • three-strandedprotein

    • found in bone,skin, ligaments,fingernails,and hair


Key concept animals are diverse but share common characteristics

diploid parents produce diploid offspring

Diploid cells have two copies of each chromosome: one copy from the mother and one from the father

  • Animals are diploid and usually reproduce sexually.

  • do not have free-living haploid life stages


Key concept animals are diverse but share common characteristics

Homeotic genes control early development.

Hox genes determine the position of cells differentiation.

A Hox gene mutation leads to the development of a body structure in the wrong position.

  • Most animals have Hox genes.


Key concept animals are diverse but share common characteristics

head

tail

fruit fly genes

human

HOX-B genes

tail

head

  • Differences in body plans result from differences in the expression of Hox genes.

  • Hox genes tell embryonic cells which body part to become.

  • Mutations in Hox genes led to the vast diversity of animal species.


Each animal phylum has a unique body plan

Each animal phylum has a unique body plan.

  • Vertebrates have an internal segmented backbone.

  • Invertebrates do not have a backbone.

  • Invertebrates encompass most animal groups.


Animals are grouped using a variety of criteria

Three criteria are used to categorize animals.

body plan symmetry

mouth

gastrovascular cavity

mesoglea

brain

muscle

hearts

blood vessels

oral arms

tentacles

mouth

digestive track

segment

nerve cord

Animals are grouped using a variety of criteria.

  • tissue layers

  • developmental patterns


Key concept animals are diverse but share common characteristics

  • bilateral symmetry: body divides equally along one plane

  • There are two types of body plan symmetry.

Animals with bilateral symmetry can be divided equally along only one plane, which splits an animal

into mirror-image sides.


Key concept animals are diverse but share common characteristics

  • There are two types of body plan symmetry.

    • bilateral symmetry: body divides equally along one plane

  • radial symmetry: body arranged in circle around a central axis

Animals with radial symmetry have body parts arranged in a circle around a central axis.


Types of symmetry

Types of Symmetry


Symmetry practice

Symmetry Practice


Germ layer tissue

Germ layer tissues are aligned in specific positions in an embryo and eventually give rise to all of an animal’s tissues and organs.

Endoderm-inner most layer, develops into the linings of the digestive tract and much of the respiratory system

Mesoderm-middle layer, gives rise to muscles and most internal organs

Ectoderm-outermost layer, gives rise to nervous system and skin

Simpler organisms with radial symmetry only have endoderm and ectoderm.

Germ Layer Tissue


Body cavities

Acoelomates- have no coelom, or body cavity

Pseudocoelomates-have a false or partially lined body cavity with only 1 side being covered with mesoderm

Coelomates-have a true body cavity, both sides of the body cavity are lined with mesoderm

Body Cavities


Gastrulation

Gastrulation

  • Gastrulation is an interior movement of cells that results in a reorganization of the embryo from a simple spherical ball of cells, the blastula, into a multi-layered organism. Two types:

    • Protostomes form mouth-first, and anus second.

    • Deuterostomes first form the anus and then the mouth.


A comparison of structure and genetics reveals the evolutionary history of animals

Protostomes and deuterostomes are the two major radiations on the animal phylogenetic tree.

Annelida

Porifera

Cnidaria

Platyhelminthes

Echinodermata

Mollusca

Arthropoda

Nematoda

Chordata

Segmented

worms

sea stars,

sea urchins

sponges

clams, snails,

octopuses

flatworms

lancelets,

vertebrates

crustaceans,

insects, spiders

roundworms

jellyfish, coral, anemones

RADIAL

DUETEROSTOMES

PROTOSTOMES

NO TISSUES

A comparison of structure and genetics reveals the evolutionary history of animals.


Key concept animals are diverse but share common characteristics

The current organization of the animal kingdom shows some unexpected relationships.

  • Technological advancementshelp to clarify evolutionaryrelationships.


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