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Upward social comparison- compare to someone who is better than you. Downward social comparison- compare to someone who is worse than you. Social Comparison Direction. Contrast.

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Presentation Transcript
Social comparison direction l.jpg

Upward social comparison- compare to someone who is better than you.

Downward social comparison- compare to someone who is worse than you.

Social Comparison Direction


Contrast l.jpg
Contrast than you.

  • Contrast effect – self is contrasted to the target of comparison and thus self-evaluations move away from the target.


Contrast effect results l.jpg

Upward social comparison- compare to someone who is better than you.

Downward social comparison- compare to someone who is worse than you.

Contrast Effect Results

Feel worse

Feel better


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Assimilation effects than you.

  • Assimilation effect- Self-evaluations move towards the target of comparison.


Assimilation effect results l.jpg

Upward social comparison- compare to someone who is better than you.

Downward social comparison- compare to someone who is worse than you.

Assimilation Effect Results

Feel better

Feel worse


Predicting contrast vs assimilation l.jpg
Predicting Contrast vs. Assimilation than you.

Tesser’s Self-Evaluation Maintenance Model

Results depend on:

  • Psychological closeness

  • Relevance of the dimension


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Self-Evaluation Maintenance than you.

Ratings of Positivity in Perception


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Predicting Assimilation vs. Contrast than you.

Lockwood & Kunda (1997)

Results depend on:

  • Relevance

  • Attainability



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Automaticity than you.

Automatic processes are well learned and require little or no conscious attention.

Is social comparison an automatic process?

If so, people should be able to compare even under cognitive load.


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Gilbert et al. (1995) than you.

  • Schizophrenia detection task

  • First watched confederate perform well (16/18) or poorly (4/18)

  • But confederate was deliberately trained or misinformed, so the comparison is non-diagnostic.

  • Half of the participants are under cognitive load.

  • All participants took test and got 10/18


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Gilbert’s theory than you.

No Cognitive load:

Correction:

Comparison is

non-diagnostic

Compare to

confederate

No effect

On self-evaluation

Cognitive load:

Unable to

correct

Effect on

Self-evaluation

Compare to

confederate


Gilbert et al 199513 l.jpg
Gilbert et al. (1995) than you.

Results (self-evaluations of performance)

Not busy: No significant effect of comparison direction.

Busy: Significant contrast effect.


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