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Chapter. 1. Introduction to Organizational Behavior. Introduction. Organizations are much more than only a means for providing goods and service They create the settings in which most of us spend our lives They have profound influence on employee behavior.

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Introduction to organizational behavior

Chapter

1

Introduction to Organizational Behavior


Introduction
Introduction

  • Organizations are much more than only a means for providing goods and service

  • They create the settings in which most of us spend our lives

  • They have profound influence on employee behavior


The core 21st century qualities needed to create the ideal work atmosphere begin with intelligence, passion, a strong work ethic, and a genuine concern for people.


Managing and working today and in the future
Managing and Working Today and in the Future:

  • Managers must become agile and flexible to help their firms develop and sustain competitive advantage

  • To be successful, managers will need to harness the powers of:

    • information technology

    • human capital


Environmental forces reshaping management practice
Environmental Forces Reshaping Management Practice

Power of

Human

Resources

Cultural

Diversity

Globalism

Technology

New Worker-

Employer

Psychological

Contract

Rapidity of

Change


Challenges of these forces to managers

Resisting the reality of these forces will likely lead to:

Unnecessary conflict

Reduced managerial performance

Reduced non-managerial performance

Lost opportunities

Failing to cope and deal with these forces will likely result in:

Job dissatisfaction

Poor morale

Reduced commitment

Lower work quality

Burnout

Poor judgment

Unhealthy consequences

Challenges of These Forces to Managers


The origins of management
The Origins of Management

Frederic W. Taylor’s Scientific Management Principles

Henri Fayol’s Functions of Management


Taylor s scientific management principles 1 of 2
Taylor’s Scientific Management Principles(1 of 2)

  • Develop a science for each element of an employee’s work

    • which replaces the old rule-of-thumb method

  • Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker

    • whereas in the past a worker chose the work to do and was self-trained


Taylor s scientific management principles 2 of 2
Taylor’s Scientific Management Principles(2 of 2)

  • Heartily cooperate with each other to insure that all work was done in accordance with the principles of science

  • There is an almost equal division of the work and the responsibility between management and non-managers


Impact of fayol s functions of management

Emphasized the importance of carefully practicing efficient:

planning

organizing

commanding

coordinating

controlling

Management is a separate body of knowledge that can be applied in any type of organization

A theory of management that can be learned and taught

There is a need for teaching management in colleges

Impact of Fayol’s Functions of Management


Definition of organizational behavior ob
Definition of Organizational Behavior (OB)

  • The study of human behavior, attitudes, and performance within an organizational setting

    • drawing on theory, methods, and principles from such disciplines as psychology, sociology, political science, and cultural anthropology

    • to learn about individual, groups, structure, and processes


Key points about ob
Key Points About OB

  • OB is a way of thinking

  • OB is multidisciplinary

  • There is a distinctly humanistic orientation within OB

  • The field of OB is performance-oriented

  • The role of the scientific method is important in studying variables and relationships

  • OB has a distinctive applications orientation


Contributions to the study of organizational behavior
Contributions to the Study of Organizational Behavior

Output

Discipline

Unit of Analysis

Psychology

Individual

Sociology

Organizational

Behavior

Social Psychology

Group

Anthropology

Organization

Political Science


Studying organizational behavior
Studying Organizational Behavior

Leaders and Organizational Behavior

The Hawthorne Studies


Topics in studying and understanding ob
Topics in Studying and Understanding OB

The

Organization’s

Environment

Group Behavior

and

Interpersonal

Influence

Understanding

and Managing

Individual

Behavior

Change and

Innovation

Organizational

Structure

Organizational

Processes


The basic elements of a system
The Basic Elements of a System

Inputs

Process

Outputs

Environment


Three perspectives on effectiveness
Three Perspectives on Effectiveness

Individual effectiveness

Group effectiveness

Organizational effectiveness


Time dimension model of effectiveness
Time Dimension Model of Effectiveness

Short run

Intermediate run

Long run

Quality

Quality

Quality

  • Productivity

  • Efficiency

  • Satisfaction

  • Adaptiveness

  • Efficiency

  • Satisfaction

  • Survival


Systems theory and effectiveness 1 of 2
Systems Theory and Effectiveness (1 of 2)

  • Effectiveness criteria must reflect the entire input-process-output cycle, not simply output

  • Effectiveness criteria must reflect the interrelationships between the organization and its outside environment


Systems theory and effectiveness 2 of 2
Systems Theory and Effectiveness (2 of 2)

  • Organizational effectiveness is an all-encompassing concept that includes a number of component concepts

  • The managerial task is to maintain the optimal balance among these components


Managers can lead the way to higher levels of effectiveness by 1 of 2
Managers can lead the way to higher levels of effectiveness by:(1 of 2)

  • Providing opportunities for training and continuous learning

  • Sharing information with employees

  • Encouraging cross-development partnerships

  • Linking compensation to performance


Managers can lead the way to higher levels of effectiveness by 2 of 2
Managers can lead the way to higher levels of effectiveness by:(2 of 2)

  • Avoiding layoffs

  • Being a supportive role model

  • Respecting the differences across employees

  • Being a good listener


Key points 1 of 2
Key Points by:(1 of 2)

  • The key to an organization’s success is its human resources

  • Organizations need human resources that:

    • work hard

    • think creatively

    • perform excellently


Key points 2 of 2
Key Points by:(2 of 2)

  • Rewarding, encouraging, and nurturing the human resources in a timely and meaningful manner is what is required

  • The behavior of employees is the key to achieving effectiveness


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