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Chapter 18 REVENUE RECOGNITION CONTINUED Sommers – ACCT 3311 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 18 REVENUE RECOGNITION CONTINUED Sommers – ACCT 3311. Long-Term Contract Losses. Loss in the Current Period on a Profitable Contract Percentage-of-completion method only, the estimated cost increase requires a current-period adjustment of gross profit recognized in prior periods. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 18 REVENUE RECOGNITION CONTINUED Sommers – ACCT 3311

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Chapter 18 revenue recognition continued sommers acct 3311 l.jpg

Chapter 18 REVENUE RECOGNITIONCONTINUEDSommers – ACCT 3311


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Long-Term Contract Losses

  • Loss in the Current Period on a Profitable Contract

    • Percentage-of-completion method only, the estimated cost increase requires a current-period adjustment of gross profit recognized in prior periods.

  • Loss on an Unprofitable Contract

    • Under both percentage-of-completion and completed-contract methods, the company must recognize in the current period the entire expected contract loss.


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Completed Contract Example – 2

Curtiss Construction Company, Inc., entered into a fixed-price contract with Axelrod Associates on July 1, 2011, to construct a four-story office building. At that time, Curtiss estimated that it would take between two and three years to complete the project. The total contract price for construction of the building is $4,000,000. Curtiss appropriately accounts for this contract under the completed contract method in its financial statements. The building was completed on December 31, 2013. Estimated percentage of completion, accumulated contract costs incurred, estimated costs to complete the contract, and accumulated billings to Axelrod under the contract were as follows:

At 12-31-11At 12-31-12At 12-31-13

Percentage of completion 10% 60% 100%

Costs incurred to date$ 350,000$2,500,000$4,250,000

Estimated costs to complete 3,150,000 1,700,000 –0–

Billings to Axelrod, to date 720,000 2,170,000 3,600,000

Compute gross profit or loss to be recognized in each year.


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Completed Contract Example – 2 Continued

The total contract price for construction of the building is $4,000,000. Curtiss appropriately accounts for this contract under the completed contract method in its financial statements. Estimated percentage of completion, accumulated contract costs incurred, estimated costs to complete the contract, and accumulated billings to Axelrod under the contract were as follows:

At 12-31-11At 12-31-12At 12-31-13

Percentage of completion 10% 60% 100%

Costs incurred to date$ 350,000$2,500,000$4,250,000

Estimated costs to complete 3,150,000 1,700,000 –0–

Billings to Axelrod, to date 720,000 2,170,000 3,600,000

Price – actual costs – estimated remaining costs = expected profit


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Completed Contract Example – 2 Continued

Just because, let’s do the journal entry to recognize profit (loss):

The total contract price for construction of the building is $4,000,000. At 12-31-11At 12-31-12At 12-31-13

Percentage of completion 10% 60% 100%

Costs incurred to date$ 350,000$2,500,000$4,250,000

Estimated costs to complete 3,150,000 1,700,000 –0–

Billings to Axelrod, to date 720,000 2,170,000 3,600,000

To recognize -0- (200,000) (50,000)


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Percentage-of-Completion Example – 2

Curtiss Construction Company, Inc., entered into a fixed-price contract with Axelrod Associates on July 1, 2011, to construct a four-story office building. At that time, Curtiss estimated that it would take between two and three years to complete the project. The total contract price for construction of the building is $4,000,000. Curtiss appropriately accounts for this contract under the completed contract method in its financial statements. The building was completed on December 31, 2013. Estimated percentage of completion, accumulated contract costs incurred, estimated costs to complete the contract, and accumulated billings to Axelrod under the contract were as follows:

At 12-31-11At 12-31-12At 12-31-13

Percentage of completion 10% 60% 100%

Costs incurred to date$ 350,000$2,500,000$4,250,000

Estimated costs to complete 3,150,000 1,700,000 –0–

Billings to Axelrod, to date 720,000 2,170,000 3,600,000

Now compute gross profit or loss to be recognized in each year assuming use of percentage-of-completion.


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Percentage-of-Completion Example – 2 Cont.

The total contract price for construction of the building is $4,000,000. Estimated percentage of completion, accumulated contract costs incurred, estimated costs to complete the contract, and accumulated billings to Axelrod under the contract were as follows:

At 12-31-11At 12-31-12At 12-31-13

Percentage of completion 10% 60% 100%

Costs incurred to date$ 350,000$2,500,000$4,250,000

Estimated costs to complete 3,150,000 1,700,000 –0–

Billings to Axelrod, to date 720,000 2,170,000 3,600,000

Expected profit * Percentage of completion (Unless loss!)


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Percentage-of-Completion Example – 2 Cont.

The total contract price for construction of the building is $4,000,000. Estimated percentage of completion, accumulated contract costs incurred, estimated costs to complete the contract, and accumulated billings to Axelrod under the contract were as follows:

At 12-31-11At 12-31-12At 12-31-13

Percentage of completion 10% 60% 100%

Costs incurred to date$ 350,000$2,500,000$4,250,000

Estimated costs to complete 3,150,000 1,700,000 –0–

Billings to Axelrod, to date 720,000 2,170,000 3,600,000

Reported on Balance Sheet


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Percentage-of-Completion Example – 2 Cont.

Again just because, let’s do the journal entry to recognize profit (loss):

The total contract price for construction of the building is $4,000,000. At 12-31-11At 12-31-12At 12-31-13

Costs incurred to date$ 350,000$2,500,000$4,250,000

Estimated costs to complete 3,150,000 1,700,000 –0–

To recognize 50,000 (250,000) (50,000)


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Helpful Graphic from Another Book


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Discussion Question

Q18-20 Explain the differences between the installment-sales method and the cost-recovery method.


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Installment-Sales vs. Cost-Recovery

When the collection of the sales price is not reasonably assured and revenue recognition is deferred.

  • Methods of deferring revenue:

    • Installment-sales method

    • Cost-recovery method

    • Deposit method

Generally Employed


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Installment-Sales Method

Recognizes income in the periods of collection rather than in the period of sale.

Recognize both revenues and costs of sales in the period of sale, but defer gross profit to periods in which cash is collected.

Selling and administrative expenses are not deferred.


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Acceptability of the Installment-Sales Method

The profession concluded that except in special circumstances, “the installment method of recognizing revenue is not acceptable.”

The rationale: because the installment method does not recognize any income until cash is collected, it is not in accordance with the accrual concept.


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Cost-Recovery Method

Recognizes no profit until cash payments by the buyer exceed the cost of the merchandise sold.

A seller is permitted to use the cost-recovery method to account for sales in which “there is no reasonable basis for estimating collectibility.” In addition, use of this method is required where a high degree of uncertainty exists related to the collection of receivables.


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Point of Delivery Example

On July 1, 2011, the Foster Company sold inventory to the Slate Corporation for $300,000. Terms of the sale called for a down payment of $75,000 and three annual installments of $75,000 due on each July 1, beginning July 1, 2012. Each installment also will include interest on the unpaid balance applying an appropriate interest rate. The inventory cost Foster $120,000. The company uses the perpetual inventory system.

Point of Delivery “Normal” Method (don’t worry about interest)


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Example as Installment Sale

On July 1, 2011, the Foster Company sold inventory to the Slate Corporation for $300,000. Terms of the sale called for a down payment of $75,000 and three annual installments of $75,000 due on each July 1, beginning July 1, 2012. Each installment also will include interest on the unpaid balance applying an appropriate interest rate. The inventory cost Foster $120,000. The company uses the perpetual inventory system.

Installment Sales Method (don’t worry about interest)


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Example as Cost Recovery

On July 1, 2011, the Foster Company sold inventory to the Slate Corporation for $300,000. Terms of the sale called for a down payment of $75,000 and three annual installments of $75,000 due on each July 1, beginning July 1, 2012. Each installment also will include interest on the unpaid balance applying an appropriate interest rate. The inventory cost Foster $120,000. The company uses the perpetual inventory system.

Cost Recovery Method (don’t worry about interest)


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IFRS

RELEVANT FACTS - Similarities

  • Revenue recognition fraud is a major issue in U.S. financial reporting. The same situation occurs overseas as evidenced by revenue recognition breakdowns at Dutch software company Baan NV, Japanese electronics giant NEC, and Dutch grocer AHold NV.

  • In general, the accounting at point of sale is similar between IFRS and GAAP. As indicated earlier, GAAP often provides detailed guidance, such as in the accounting for right of return and multiple-deliverable arrangements.


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IFRS

RELEVANT FACTS - Differences

  • The IASB defines revenue to include both revenues and gains. GAAP provides separate definitions for revenues and gains.

  • IFRS has one basic standard on revenue recognition—IAS 18. GAAP has numerous standards related to revenue recognition (by some counts over 100).

  • Accounting for revenue provides a most fitting contrast of the principles-based (IFRS) and rules-based (GAAP) approaches. While both sides have their advocates, the IASB and the FASB have identified a number of areas for improvement in this area.


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IFRS

RELEVANT FACTS - Differences

  • In general, the IFRS revenue recognition principle is based on the probability that the economic benefits associated with the transaction will flow to the company selling the goods, rendering the service, or receiving investment income. In addition, the revenues and costs must be capable of being measured reliably. GAAP uses concepts such as realized, realizable, and earned as a basis for revenue recognition.

  • Under IFRS, revenue should be measured at fair value of the consideration received or receivable. GAAP measures revenue based on the fair value of what is given up (goods or services) or the fair value of what is received—whichever is more clearly evident.


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IFRS

RELEVANT FACTS - Differences

  • IFRS prohibits the use of the completed-contract method of accounting for long-term construction contracts (IAS 13). Companies must use the percentage-of-completion method. If revenues and costs are difficult to estimate, then companies recognize revenue only to the extent of the cost incurred—a cost-recovery (zero-profit) approach.

  • In long-term construction contracts, IFRS requires recognition of a loss immediately if the overall contract is going to be unprofitable. In other words, GAAP and IFRS are the same regarding this issue.


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Percentage-of-Completion Example – 3

Perfectionist Construction Company was the low bidder on an office building construction contract. The contract bid was $9,000,000, with an estimated cost to complete the project of $7,000,000. The contract period was 30 months starting May 1, 2012. Because of changes requested by the customer, the contract price was adjusted downward to $8,600,000 on May 1, 2013. A record of construction activities for the years 2012–2015 is as follows:

Prepare all journal entries and the relevant balance sheet entries for 2012–2015 under the percentage-of-completion method of revenue recognition.


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Percentage-of-Completion Example – 3

2012


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Percentage-of-Completion Example – 3

2013


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Percentage-of-Completion Example – 3

2014


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Percentage-of-Completion Example – 3

2015