04/05/2012. GCSE History Coursework. 2. The background. Civil Rights protests 1968-1972Deployment of British Army in Northern IrelandIncrease in paramilitary actions. 04/05/2012. GCSE History Coursework. 3. The Civil Rights Movement. Established by students as a form of protest about housing, unem
1. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 1 Bloody Sunday 30th January 1972
2. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 2 The background Civil Rights protests 1968-1972
Deployment of British Army in Northern Ireland
Increase in paramilitary actions
3. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 3 The Civil Rights Movement Established by students as a form of protest about housing, unemployment and political inequalities. This movement was met with hostility by some elements of the protestant community who thought it was a method of interfering in Northern Irish issues.
The main method of protesting was marches. When these were attacked some of the marchers also used violence. The police have been accused of taking sides in these clashes.
Marches led to increased confrontation between Unionists and Nationalists and led to increased suspicion and hatred of the Police, and later armed forces.
4. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 4 Government Action The Police
Used force against the violent minority of the marchers.
Were seen by Catholics as acting unlawfully.
Were sent to aid the RUC.
Were used to conduct house to house searches.
5. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 5 Government Action continued Consequences.
Catholic population of Northern Ireland felt increasingly isolated.
Popularity of paramilitary groups increases as Nationalists lose faith in security forces.
Unionist paramilitary groups step up recruitment.
Continued unrest and calls for Political change.
Which later lead to…
Tit for tat killings
‘No go’ areas being created as paramilitary groups take to the streets
6. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 6 Preventative Measures Internment
This is imprisonment of suspects without trial. These men were badly treated, they were denied sleep, subjected to continuous noise and often ‘hooded’ at times when they were not being interrogated.
Nearly all of the 1600 internees were Catholic.
Consequences of Internment
Rapid increase in the number of paramilitary attacks. (April-July of 1971 8 killings, August- November 114 killings)
Public outcry at treatment of innocent men.
Increased feeling of isolation amongst the catholic population.
7. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 7 The Catholic reaction A Protest Rally organised for
30 January 1972 to complain at the use of Internment.
8. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 8 The Rally: What happened? Marchers were allowed to congregate and set off on the march (Political Marches had been banned in Northern Ireland).
Marchers halted at an army roadblock.
9. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 9 The Rally: What happened? Protestors throw stones at the army.
Water Cannon and Rubber Bullets used to disperse the crowd.
Confrontation continues and further stones are thrown and rubber bullets fired.
10. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 10 The Rally: What happened? Suddenly gun shot is heard and within seconds 13 marchers are lying dead, others are wounded and hundreds of others are in shock.
The British Army has killed 13 members of the public
11. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 11 Immediate Reactions The Army
Claims it only ever returned fire
Claim that no shots were fired other than those by the armed forces
Offer conflicting accounts but cannot PROVE that shots were fired at the army
*The Inquiry into these events has recently been re-opened, this may result in an accepted version of events becoming available.
12. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 12 Interpretations of events The Official Version of events.
The men of the Parachute regiment responded to gun shot. They had been under attack from the crowd for some time, through stone throwing and reacted to shots being fired by returning fire. This is an acceptable reaction. It is regrettable that innocent people may have been as a result of the paratroopers self defence.
The Marchers Version of events.
The armed forces were provocative. They had halted a peaceful protest and were aggressive towards members of the protest group. The frustrated actions of some marchers resulted in the paratroopers opting for brute, murdering force. They opened fire on innocent men, women and children.
13. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 13 Possible Explanations to consider Paratroopers were armed with both rubber bullets and live ammunition. They may have mistakenly used live ammunition.
The paratroopers were fearful of being shot at, the IRA was becoming increasingly active. If they thought they were being shot at, they might have panicked themselves.
The parachute regiment is not trained for crowd control situations. They are trained to be aggressive.
14. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 14 Consequences Break down of Law and Order in Northern Ireland.
IRA attacks on mainland Britain.
Unionists become more extreme.
Northern Ireland assembly suspended.
Increase in number of soldiers in the province.
Increased sympathy for extremists of both sides from abroad.
Change in IRA tactics
Splinter groups from the IRA emerge, the Irish National Liberation Army.
Police and Army made increasingly unwelcome in Nationalist areas.
Government reform: gerrymandering ends, B-Specials disbanded, direct rule from Whitehall (London), new security force established (Ulster Defence regiment)… which each in themselves have consequences…
15. 09/05/2012 GCSE History Coursework 15 Reaction to Government actions Dublin, happy with Direct Rule as it ends Unionist control over the province. Calls for IRA cease-fire.
Unionists. Feel betrayed by London. Unionist paramilitary groups increase number of sectarian attacks.
Nationalists. Many were pleased with Direct Rule. Civil Rights protestors still press for reform though.
IRA. View direct rule as Britain trying to illegally take what is not rightfully there’s. Escalation of violence.