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Genetics. The branch of biology that studies heredity. Gregor Mendel. The Father of Genetics An Austrian Monk during the mid nineteenth century Used garden pea plants to make his discovery that traits are passed from parent to offspring. Important Vocabulary.

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genetics

Genetics

The branch of biology that studies heredity

gregor mendel
Gregor Mendel
  • The Father of Genetics
  • An Austrian Monk during the mid nineteenth century
  • Used garden pea plants to make his discovery that traits are passed from parent to offspring
important vocabulary
Important Vocabulary
  • Trait- characteristics that are inherited
  • Gamete- sex cells (ex..in humans sperm and egg)
  • Fertilization- the uniting of male and female gametes
  • Hybrid- the offspring of parent that has different forms of a trait (ex. Tall and short height)
mendel s discoveries
Mendel’s Discoveries
  • The rule of unit factors : each organism has two factors that control each of its traits. The factors are called alleles.
  • One allele is inherited from the female parent and one from the male parent.
mendel s discoveries1
Mendel’s Discoveries
  • The rule of dominance: when a dominant allele is present you will see it.
  • You will only see a recessive allele when there is no dominant allele present.
mendel s laws
Mendel’s Laws
  • The Law of Segregation states that alleles randomly pair during fertilization.
  • The Law of Independent Assortment states that different traits are inherited independently of each other. Example seed shape and seed color have no influence on each other.
monohybrid cross
Monohybrid cross
  • T- stands for tall
  • t – stand for short
  • Dominant traits are always written with a capital letter. Dominant alleles will always be seen if they are present.
  • Recessive traits are always written with a lower case letter. One can only see a recessive trait when a dominant trait is not present. You must have two recessive alleles.
phenotype the way the offspring look
Phenotype- the way the offspring look
  • The phenotype of the F1 generation of the monohybrid cross is all tall.
genotype the actual allele configuration of the offpring
Genotype- the actual allele configuration of the offpring
  • The genotype of the F1 generation is “all Tt” or “all heterozygous”-
heterozygous vs homozygous
Heterozygous means a dominant allele and a recessive allele is present .

Examples: Tt, Yy, Pp

Homozygous means there is only one form of the allele present.

Examples: tt, TT, YY, yy, PP, pp

Offspring can be either homozygous dominant (TT) or homozygous recessive (tt).

Heterozygous vs. Homozygous
monohybrid cross1
Monohybrid Cross
  • Yy x Yy
  • Y-Yellow pea
  • y- green pea
  • What is the phenotype of this F1 generation?
  • What is the genotype of this F1 generation?
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