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EVI. Preliminary Design Review. Team Members: Justin Schlee Brendin Johnson Jeff Eggebraaten Anne Mousseau. Outline. Problem Statement, Specifications, and Deliverables Project Learning Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Variable Power Rates Battery Chargers Marketing Research Budget Schedule

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EVI

Preliminary Design Review

Team Members:

Justin Schlee

Brendin Johnson

Jeff Eggebraaten

Anne Mousseau


Outline
Outline

Problem Statement, Specifications, and Deliverables

Project Learning

  • Vehicle to Grid (V2G)

  • Variable Power Rates

  • Battery Chargers

  • Marketing Research

    Budget

    Schedule

    Challenges

    Future Work


Problem statement
Problem Statement

The demand for plug-in electric

vehicles is increasing rapidly

which may pose potential

problems in terms of supplying

required power to these electric

vehicles’ batteries. Idaho Power wants to know what issues

the additional load of electric vehicles to the electric grid

might cause.


Specifications
Specifications

  • Determine the Effects of Electric Vehicle Battery Charging

  • Research Electric Vehicle Projected Market Population Density

  • Determine the Power Characteristics of a Common Electric Vehicle Battery Charger

  • Determine Mitigation Strategy for Power Quality Issues


Deliverables
Deliverables

Final Report

  • EV Power Quality Report

  • EV Market Research Report

  • EV Charging Report

  • Mitigation Strategy Report

  • Simulation Report

    Case Study Simulations


Power sellback v2g
Power Sellback – V2G

Benefits

  • Peak Shaving

  • Load Regulation

    Challenges

  • Harmonics

  • Protection Tripping

  • Safety


Benefits
Benefits:

Peak Shaving

  • Electric vehicles could provide power during peak usage, thereby reducing the overall required capacity

    Load Regulation

  • Electric vehicles could be used throughout the day to provide and consume power as necessary to compensate for regional fluctuations in power usage


Challenges
Challenges:

Harmonics

  • Inverters used in battery chargers to deliver power back to the grid will introduce harmonics

    Protection Tripping

  • Harmonics on the grid could cause voltage and current spikes that may trip protection devices

    Safety

  • Power being supplied by an electric vehicle could continue to flow into a fault after all existing protective devices have tripped off-line


Direction of progress
Direction of Progress

Harmonics:

  • Determine what the most common THD rating of EV chargers is likely to be in the near future

  • Determine what effects harmonic voltages will have on the power grid

  • Determine what effects power correction capacitor banks will have on harmonic voltages

    Load Regulation:

  • Determine how much total regulation will be available at different market penetration levels

  • Determine the value of EV regulation to utilities


Variable power rates
Variable Power Rates

Pros of PSE’s Variable Rate Plan:

  • About 5% of total power usage was shifted to off-peak hours

  • Overall electricity usage was reduced by 6%

  • An overall positive reaction from the customers for the incentive to use energy more efficiently

Source: Puget Sound Energy


Variable power rates1
Variable Power Rates

Cons of PSE’s Variable Rate Plan:

  • To break even customers would have needed to use more than half their electricity during the lowest rate hours.

  • This was an inconvenience for some families who felt that the time-of-day plan was incompatible with their lifestyle.

Source: Puget Sound Energy


Conductive charger levels
Conductive Charger Levels

* Receptacle rating (maximum continuous current of 12 A).

** Maximum allowed by standards

Source: C.C Chan, K.T. Chau


Harmonic effects of charging
Harmonic Effects of Charging

Harmonic Distortion

  • Excessive harmonics could damage large capacitive banks used for power factor correction

  • Harmonics could cause over-current, over-voltage and under-voltage protection devices to have false alarms or trip

  • As harmonic currents flow through the power transformer with a delta connection, the triplen harmonic component can circulate within the delta loop which could result in over heating

Source: C.C Chan, K.T. Chau


Market research
Market Research

Why is market research needed?

To predict the future number of PHEV’s on the road.


Market research1
Market Research

Gathered Information

  • National Numbers

    • National Yearly Sales (Autodata)

    • Projected PHEV new car sales (E.P.R.I.)

    • Number of cars on the road per year (D.O.T.)

  • Regional Numbers

    • Number of cars registered in Idaho (Idaho D.M.V)

    • Number of cars registered in Ada county (Idaho D.M.V)

      Results

  • Projected number of PHEV’s in Idaho

  • Projected number of PHEV’s in Ada county


Projected Plug-in Electric Vehicle Market Share

Share of New Vehicle Sales

Source: EPRI

Year





Anticipated problems
Anticipated Problems

Time

  • Working in parallel

  • Decomposition of Tasks

    Cost of Reports

  • IEEE Explore

  • Energy Insights

  • EPRI’s Free Reports

    Learning Curve for Simulation Software

  • Added Extra Time for Learning

  • Assigned a Simulation Lead (Jeff)


Future work
Future Work

Project Learning

  • SynerGEE Software

  • System Upgrades

  • Power Quality

    Simulations

  • Base-Line Case Study

  • Projected Future Load

  • V2G Study

  • Variable Pricing Study

  • Power Quality/Mitigation Study



Variable power rates2
Variable Power Rates

Case Study: Puget Sound Energy’s Variable Rate Plan in 2001

  • About 300,000 customers adopted the variable rate plan

  • Peak Hours: Monday - Saturday

    • 6:00am – 10:00am : 6.35¢/kWh

    • 5:00pm – 9:oopm : 6.35¢/kW

  • Medium Rate Hours: Monday - Saturday

    • 10:00am – 5:00pm : 5.36 ¢/kW

  • Lowest Rate Hours: Monday - Saturday

    • 9:00pm – 6:00am : 4.7 ¢/kW

    • Sundays and holidays : 4.7 ¢/kW



  • Load regulation
    Load Regulation

    Power (KW) or Battery SOC (%)

    Time

    Source: A. Brooks, T.Gage

    Integration of Electric Drive Vehicles with the Electric Power Grid -- a New Value Stream


    Basic charger information
    Basic Charger Information

    According Hymotion division of A123Systems, charging for the batteries they currently use to convert HV to PHEV charge in 5-5.5 hours with a current draw of 15 A at 120V.

    Source: BatteryUniversity.com



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