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Wetlands/Swamps. Wetlands/ Swamps. By: Steven Wilber & Danielle Hollenbeck. By Steven Wilber & Danielle Hollenbeck. Types of Wetlands. Freshwater Wetlands. Saltwater Wetlands. Estuaries. Bogs Marshes Swamps. Effects of Latitude and Altitude. Latitude. Altitude.

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Wetlands/ Swamps

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Wetlands/ Swamps

By: Steven Wilber


Danielle Hollenbeck

By Steven Wilber & Danielle Hollenbeck

Types of Wetlands

Freshwater Wetlands

Saltwater Wetlands


  • Bogs

  • Marshes

  • Swamps

Effects of Latitude and Altitude



The higher up in the atmosphere something is locate, the cooler the air.

Less vegetation with higher altitude.

Proximity to a mountain creates a rain shadow effect on the leeward side.

  • The higher the latitude, or distance from equator, the cooler the temperature.

  • Higher latitudes receive less direct sunlight than lower altitudes.

  • More defined seasons the further away from the equator but less defined closer to the poles.


  • Wetlands in the south are host to species that do not inhabit similar wetlands in the north.

  • Wetlands exist where soil is saturated for much of the year.

  • Therefore wetlands depend on: location, location, location.

Biotic and Abiotic Features



Non-living components of the ecosystem:






  • Living components of the ecosystem:

    • Flowers

    • Bacteria

    • Herons

    • Muskrats

    • Snakes

    • Turtles

    • Salamanders

    • Etc.

Wetland Duckweed

Wetland/Swamp Trophic Levels

  • Trophic Levels

    • 1st is primary producers

      • Plant life

    • 2nd is First-level consumers

      • Herbivores

    • 3rd is Second-level consumers

      • Carnivores

    • 4th is Third-level consumers

      • Carnivores and omnivores

Water Cycle

  • Wetlands collect and hold floodwater, then slowly release them.

  • Soils purify water

  • Critical in regulating the movement of water.

Nitrogen Cycle

  • Wetlands contain nitrogen fixing bacteria

  • The bacteria fixes and releases nitrogen back into the atmosphere

  • An equilibrium is reached between nitrogen in the atmosphere, soil, and water.

Phosphorus Cycle

  • Phosphorus is distributed in wetland water.

  • Removed by plants and soil microbes

  • Absorbed quickly in watershed soils.

Carbon Cycle

  • Wetlands affect carbon in the atmosphere in two ways:

    • 1) They are carbon reservoirs

    • The carbon is released when the water level lowers

    • 2) Take CO2 out of the atmosphere through photosynthesis by wetland plants

    • Wetlands also release CO2

Wetland Plants







Cover for many wetland species

  • Food source for ducks and foul

  • Floats on the water surface

    • Is not rooted to the bottom

Wetland Animals


Great Blue Heron

Control fish and insect populations

Important food source for predators

  • Abundant in wetland marshes

  • Important prey animals

  • Graze on vegetation

  • Therefore influence local plant growth

Limiting Factors

  • Limiting Factors

    • Rainfall

    • Species Diversity

    • Phosphorus

    • Chemical Runoff

    • Depletion of diversity

    • Climate

    • Predation

Wetland Resources

Ecological Resources

Economic Resources

Restore water quality

Reduce flood risks

Provide wildlife

Reduce erosion


Maintain water flow during drought


  • Wildlife

  • Plant life

  • Bacteria

  • Soil

    • Filtration

  • Phosphorous

  • Nitrates

  • Etc.

Effects of Humans



Increased erosion

Alter soil composition

Increased sediments

Water level fluctuation

Alters nutrient input and recycling

Phosphorus runoff

Upsets chemical balance of water

  • Home development

  • Filling

  • Clearing of vegetation

  • Change in drainage patterns

  • Pollutants and increased sediments

  • Agriculture

Wetland Protection Laws



Regulates discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters

Government protection and restoration act

Prevents degradation of our natural resources

Protection of Wetland resources

  • Clean Water Act

  • Coastal Zone Management Act

  • National Environmental Policy Act

  • Massachusetts Wetlands Protection Act

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