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Chapter 16: Trends in System Development. Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World. Reasons for Slow Development. Rework Using the wrong software Not meeting minimum quality standards Shifting requirements and project changes Changes to design and construction

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chapter 16 trends in system development

Chapter 16:Trends in System Development

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World

reasons for slow development
Reasons for Slow Development
  • Rework
    • Using the wrong software
    • Not meeting minimum quality standards
  • Shifting requirements and project changes
    • Changes to design and construction
  • Improper tools and techniques for project
    • Reduces quality, increases development time
  • Poor Project Management

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

cost of change in each project phase
Cost of Change in Each Project Phase

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

what is rad
What is RAD?
  • Collection of development approaches, techniques, tools, and technologies
  • RAD proven to shorten development schedules
  • No universal RAD approach shortens every project schedule
  • No technique, tools or technology fits perfectly
  • Key is identifying overall development approach and matching set of techniques, tools, techniques most suitable to approach and specific project

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

rapid application development
Rapid Application Development
  • RAD is overused and poorly understood
  • Software developers claim they do, but cannot precisely define
  • Equated with tools and techniques
    • Prototyping, fourth-generation programming languages, CASE tools
    • Object-oriented analysis, design, and development
  • Tool vendors and methodologies claim RAD
  • Competing and confusing claims

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

slide6

Development Approach as

a Function of Project Characteristics

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

prototyping approach to development
Prototyping Approach to Development
  • Discovery prototype
    • Used in analysis or early design
    • Uncover or refine system requirements
    • Can be thrown away
  • Developmental prototype
    • Not thrown away
    • Part of iterative development until final system complete

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

when to use a prototyping approach
When to Use a Prototyping Approach
  • When to use:
    • Requirements cannot be fully specified outside of architectural or detailed design
    • Technical feasibility unknown or uncertain
    • Development tools powerful enough to create functional system
  • When not to use:
    • System is non-interactive or internally complex
    • Strict security or performance requirements exist

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

prototyping tool requirements
Prototyping Tool Requirements
  • Development speed
  • Flexibility and power
  • Techniques and capabilities
    • WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get)
    • Generation of complete programs, program skeletons, or database schemas from diagrams
    • Rapid customization of software libraries or components
    • Error-checking and debugging capabilities

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

prototyping tools
Prototyping Tools
  • Simple
    • Access
    • Excel
    • Graphical
  • Visual Studio .NET
  • PowerBuilder
  • Oracle Forms

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

prototyping fpf principle
Prototyping FPF Principle
  • Make it Functional
  • Make it Pretty
  • Make it Fast

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

spiral approach to development
Spiral Approach to Development
  • Iterative development approach
    • Each iteration may include combination of planning, analysis, design, or development steps
  • More radical departure from traditional development than prototyping development

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

slide13

The Spiral Life Cycle

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

steps in the spiral development approach
Steps in the Spiral Development Approach
  • Criteria for feature selection for each prototype
    • User priorities
    • Uncertain requirements
    • Function reuse
    • Implementation risk
  • Break into categories
    • “Must have”, “Should have”, “Nice to have”
    • Complete high priorities earlier to reduce risk

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

benefits and risks of spiral development
Benefits and Risks of Spiral Development
  • Benefits
    • High parallelism
    • High user involvement
    • Gradual resource commitment
    • Frequent product delivery
  • Risks
    • Management difficulties and design complexity
    • More potential for rework

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

slide16

Cumulative Cost Plotted Against Time

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

the unified process
The Unified Process
  • Comprehensive development approach
    • Originally developed by Jacobsen, Booch, and Rumbaugh in late 1990s
    • Dominant approach for developing software with OO models and tools
    • Adopts iteration from prototyping and spiral development approaches
    • Exclusive reliance on OO models, tools, and techniques

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

up phases and objectives figure 16 2
UP Phases and Objectives (Figure 16-2)

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

the unified process life cycle figure 16 1
The Unified Process Life Cycle (Figure 16-1)

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

when to use the unified process
When to Use the Unified Process
  • Benefits and risks mirror spiral development
  • Major obstacles to adopt UP include:
    • Complex project management (compared to sequential development) required
    • Need to adopt OO models, tools, techniques throughout project
  • UP’s formal steps, well-defined roles, attention to model building and validation makes UP preferred approach for large-scale development

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

rapid development techniques
Rapid Development Techniques
  • Collection of guidelines used to help an analyst complete system development activities or tasks
    • Risk management
    • Joint application design (JAD)
    • Tool-based development
    • Software reuse
    • Object frameworks

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

components and the development life cycle
Components and the Development Life Cycle
  • Purchased components can form part or all of system
  • Components provide one model for designing and deploying systems
  • Component issues
    • Internally developed components
    • Object-oriented techniques
    • Designing components for reuse

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

slide23

Activities Added to SDLC Phases when Components are Purchased

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition

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