Chapter 16 trends in system development
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Chapter 16: Trends in System Development. Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World. Reasons for Slow Development. Rework Using the wrong software Not meeting minimum quality standards Shifting requirements and project changes Changes to design and construction

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Chapter 16: Trends in System Development

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Chapter 16 trends in system development

Chapter 16:Trends in System Development

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World


Reasons for slow development

Reasons for Slow Development

  • Rework

    • Using the wrong software

    • Not meeting minimum quality standards

  • Shifting requirements and project changes

    • Changes to design and construction

  • Improper tools and techniques for project

    • Reduces quality, increases development time

  • Poor Project Management

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Cost of change in each project phase

Cost of Change in Each Project Phase

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


What is rad

What is RAD?

  • Collection of development approaches, techniques, tools, and technologies

  • RAD proven to shorten development schedules

  • No universal RAD approach shortens every project schedule

  • No technique, tools or technology fits perfectly

  • Key is identifying overall development approach and matching set of techniques, tools, techniques most suitable to approach and specific project

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Rapid application development

Rapid Application Development

  • RAD is overused and poorly understood

  • Software developers claim they do, but cannot precisely define

  • Equated with tools and techniques

    • Prototyping, fourth-generation programming languages, CASE tools

    • Object-oriented analysis, design, and development

  • Tool vendors and methodologies claim RAD

  • Competing and confusing claims

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Chapter 16 trends in system development

Development Approach as

a Function of Project Characteristics

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Prototyping approach to development

Prototyping Approach to Development

  • Discovery prototype

    • Used in analysis or early design

    • Uncover or refine system requirements

    • Can be thrown away

  • Developmental prototype

    • Not thrown away

    • Part of iterative development until final system complete

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


When to use a prototyping approach

When to Use a Prototyping Approach

  • When to use:

    • Requirements cannot be fully specified outside of architectural or detailed design

    • Technical feasibility unknown or uncertain

    • Development tools powerful enough to create functional system

  • When not to use:

    • System is non-interactive or internally complex

    • Strict security or performance requirements exist

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Prototyping tool requirements

Prototyping Tool Requirements

  • Development speed

  • Flexibility and power

  • Techniques and capabilities

    • WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get)

    • Generation of complete programs, program skeletons, or database schemas from diagrams

    • Rapid customization of software libraries or components

    • Error-checking and debugging capabilities

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Prototyping tools

Prototyping Tools

  • Simple

    • Access

    • Excel

    • Graphical

  • Visual Studio .NET

  • PowerBuilder

  • Oracle Forms

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Prototyping fpf principle

Prototyping FPF Principle

  • Make it Functional

  • Make it Pretty

  • Make it Fast

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Spiral approach to development

Spiral Approach to Development

  • Iterative development approach

    • Each iteration may include combination of planning, analysis, design, or development steps

  • More radical departure from traditional development than prototyping development

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Chapter 16 trends in system development

The Spiral Life Cycle

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Steps in the spiral development approach

Steps in the Spiral Development Approach

  • Criteria for feature selection for each prototype

    • User priorities

    • Uncertain requirements

    • Function reuse

    • Implementation risk

  • Break into categories

    • “Must have”, “Should have”, “Nice to have”

    • Complete high priorities earlier to reduce risk

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Benefits and risks of spiral development

Benefits and Risks of Spiral Development

  • Benefits

    • High parallelism

    • High user involvement

    • Gradual resource commitment

    • Frequent product delivery

  • Risks

    • Management difficulties and design complexity

    • More potential for rework

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Chapter 16 trends in system development

Cumulative Cost Plotted Against Time

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


The unified process

The Unified Process

  • Comprehensive development approach

    • Originally developed by Jacobsen, Booch, and Rumbaugh in late 1990s

    • Dominant approach for developing software with OO models and tools

    • Adopts iteration from prototyping and spiral development approaches

    • Exclusive reliance on OO models, tools, and techniques

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Up phases and objectives figure 16 2

UP Phases and Objectives (Figure 16-2)

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


The unified process life cycle figure 16 1

The Unified Process Life Cycle (Figure 16-1)

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


When to use the unified process

When to Use the Unified Process

  • Benefits and risks mirror spiral development

  • Major obstacles to adopt UP include:

    • Complex project management (compared to sequential development) required

    • Need to adopt OO models, tools, techniques throughout project

  • UP’s formal steps, well-defined roles, attention to model building and validation makes UP preferred approach for large-scale development

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Rapid development techniques

Rapid Development Techniques

  • Collection of guidelines used to help an analyst complete system development activities or tasks

    • Risk management

    • Joint application design (JAD)

    • Tool-based development

    • Software reuse

    • Object frameworks

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Components and the development life cycle

Components and the Development Life Cycle

  • Purchased components can form part or all of system

  • Components provide one model for designing and deploying systems

  • Component issues

    • Internally developed components

    • Object-oriented techniques

    • Designing components for reuse

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


Chapter 16 trends in system development

Activities Added to SDLC Phases when Components are Purchased

Systems Analysis and Design in a Changing World, 3rd Edition


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